The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation Instrumentation - Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Garching, Germany, 4-8 April 2005

The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation Instrumentation - Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Garching, Germany, 4-8 April 2005

von: Andrea Richichi, Francoise Delplancke, Francesco Paresce, Alain Chelli

Springer-Verlag, 2007

ISBN: 9783540742562 , 603 Seiten

Format: PDF

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation Instrumentation - Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Garching, Germany, 4-8 April 2005


 

Preface

5

Contents

7

List of Contributors

19

The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry

30

1 Introduction

30

2 A few examples of current results

31

3 Near future possibilities

33

4 Far future possibilities

35

References

36

The Early Days of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer

38

1 1974-1987: a dream takes shape

38

2 The VLTI conception: hot issues (1981-1987)

41

3 Parallel developments of interferometers (1974-1987)

45

4 From 1987 to present, a success story

47

5 A few lessons for the future

48

References

49

1988–1993: The Final Definition of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, its Site and Configuration

51

1 Introduction

51

2 Why a Homothetic Beam Combiner with an 8 arcsecond FOV?

52

3 What is the VLTI Blind Operation Concept?

53

4 My View for the Future Use and Development of the VLTI.

55

References

55

Science: Stars — stellar diameters, limb darkening, flattening, surface structures

57

Stellar Diameters: Breaking the Barriers

58

1 Introduction

58

2 Three fundamental questions

59

3 Statistics of available angular diameters

60

4 Moving ahead

65

References

69

Imaging the Effects of Rotation in Altair and Vega

70

1 Introduction: Rotation Among Early-Type Stars

70

2 Interferometry and Closure Phases

71

3 Altair

73

4 Vega

78

References

80

Rapid Rotation across the HR Diagram with VLTI: Achernar and Altair

82

1 Introduction

82

2 Observations and results

82

H band

85

K band

85

3 Conclusions and perspectives

85

References

86

Multi-Wavelength Interferometry of Evolved Stars Using VLTI and VLBA

87

1 Introduction

87

2 The atmospheric structure of non-Mira giants

90

3 The atmospheric structure of Mira giants

92

4 Joint VLTI/VLBA observations of the Mira star SOri

93

5 Outlook

95

References

96

Limb Darkening: Getting Warmer

97

1 Procyon: Limb Darkening and Convection

97

2 Deneb: Mass Loss and Asymmetry

102

3 Rigel: A Larger Diameter and Limb Darkening

104

4 Limb Darkening: Getting Warmer

105

References

107

Cepheid Distances from Interferometry

109

1 Introduction

109

2 Existing Galactic Cepheid distances

110

3 The interferometric Baade-Wesselink (IBW) method

110

4 VINCI observations

113

5 P–L, P–R and surface brightness-color relations

114

6 Prospects on direct Cepheid distances

117

7 An ideal interferometer for Cepheids ?

119

8 Conclusion

119

References

120

The K-Band Intensity Profile of R Leonis Probed by VLTI/ VINCI

121

1 Introduction

121

2 Observations

122

3 Comparison with models

122

4 Conclusions

122

References

124

Cepheids Observations Using CHARA/ FLUOR : a UMi and d Cep

125

1 Cepheid distance measurements using the Interferometric Baade- Wesselink Method

125

2 a UMi and its visibility profile

126

3 The pulsation of d Cep

128

4 Conclusion

129

References

129

Cepheid Observations with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer: Carinae and ß Doradus

130

1 Introduction

130

2 Observations

130

3 Analysis

131

4 Car

132

5 ß Dor

133

6 Summary

133

References

134

The Circumstellar Environment of Evolved Stars as seen by VLTI/ MIDI

135

1 Introduction

135

2 MIDI and VINCI observations

136

3 Modeling of the observed N-band and K-band visibilities

137

4 Concluding remarks

139

References

139

Science: Stars — circumstellar matter, IR objects

140

Evolved Stars: Interferometer Baby Food or Staple Diet?

141

1 Introduction

141

2 Historical overview: interferometric studies of circumstellar material

142

3 Present and Future prospects

147

4 Conclusions

150

References

150

Eta Car through the Eyes of Interferometers

153

1 Introduction

153

2 NACO observations: the inner dusty nebula

155

3 VINCI observations: the evidence for rotation

157

4 MIDI observations: dusty clumps, everywhere!

159

5 AMBER observations: revealing the binary?

161

References

163

The Ejecta of Eta Carinae: What we have Learned from Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph

164

1 Introduction

164

2 Recent Observations

165

3 Outer Ejecta: Homunculus and Little Homunculus

166

4 The Central Region

167

5 What VLT and VLTI could do

169

6 Conclusions

171

References

172

First AMBER/VLTI Observations of Hot Massive Stars

173

1 Introduction

173

2 AMBER observations

175

3 TheWolf Rayet star .2 Velorum

175

4 The Luminous Blue Variable . Carinae

178

5 Conclusion

181

References

181

Mineralogy of Circumstellar Dust

182

1 Introduction

182

2 Infrared diagnostics of dust

182

3 Dust in proto-planetary disks

184

4 Dust in evolved stars

188

5 Conclusions

191

References

191

First Evidence for a Spatially Resolved Disk Structure around the Herbig Ae Star R CrA

193

1 Introduction

193

2 Observations and Calibration

194

3 Evidence for an inclined disk structure

194

References

197

The Chaotic Winds of AGB Stars: Observation Meets Theory

198

1 Introduction

198

2 The Model

198

3 Results

199

4 Conclusions

202

References

202

Observations of 51 Ophiuchi with MIDI at the VLTI

203

1 Introduction

203

2 Observations and Data Reduction

204

3 Results

205

4 Discussion

207

5 Conclusions

207

References

207

Mid-Infrared Spectrally-Dispersed Visibilities of Massive Stars Observed with the MIDI Instrument on the VLTI

208

1 Introduction

208

2 Binarity in Massive Stars

209

3 Keck and IOTA Interferometer Observations of Wolf- Rayet Stars

210

4 VLTI Observations of WR 95 and WR 122

210

5 Conclusions

212

References

212

The B[e] Star Hen 3-1191 Resolved with MIDI

214

1 Introduction

214

2 Observation and data reduction

215

3 Modelling of the circumstellar environment

216

4 The nature of Hen 3-1191

217

5 Conclusion & perspective

218

References

218

Science: Stars — binaries and multiples

219

Binaries: A Main Staple of Interferometry

220

1 Introduction and outline

220

2 Challenges and achievements

222

3 Encounters with theory

222

4 Footprints in the HR diagram

223

5 Advanced modeling

224

6 Multiple systems and the hierarchical model

224

7 Interferometric imaging

225

8 Conclusions and future challenges

226

References

227

Protoplanetary Disks as seen by Interferometry

229

1 Introduction

229

2 Models of disks are currently based on the SED

230

3 Planetary Forming Regions: new constraints provided by NIR and MID interferometry

231

4 MID interferometry: Mineralogy of the Inner Disk

234

5 Multi-wavelengths interferometry: AB Auriga case

234

6 Summary

237

References

237

Pre-Main Sequence Binaries: The Promise of IR Interferometry

239

1 The Problem

239

2 The Promise of IR Interferometry

241

3 Good Targets are Hard to Find

243

4 Truth in Advertising

244

References

245

Observations of Young Stellar Objects with Infrared Interferometry: Recent Results from PTI, KI and IOTA

246

1 Introduction

246

2 KI, PTI and IOTA interferometers

247

3 Previous near-infrared interferometry results

247

4 New results

248

5 Conclusions

251

References

252

FU Orionis - The MIDI Perspective

253

1 Introduction

253

2 The Acquisition Image

254

3 The Spectrum

255

4 The Visibility Measurements

256

References

257

VLTI MIDI Observations of the Herbig Ae Star HR 5999

258

1 Introduction

258

2 Observations and data analysis

259

3 Results

259

4 Discussion

261

References

262

Disentangling the Wind and the Disk in the Close Surrounding of the Young Stellar Object MWC297 with AMBER/ VLTI

263

1 Introduction

263

2 Observations

264

3 Modeling

264

4 Discussion

267

5 Conclusion

268

References

269

Interferometry of M8E-IR with MIDI - Resolving the Dust Emission

271

1 Introduction

271

2 Observations and Data Reduction

272

3 Results

272

4 Modelling

273

5 Discussion

274

6 Conclusion

275

References

275

Observing T Tauri Stars in the Mid-Infrared with MIDI

276

1 The Origin of the Silicate Features

276

2 The Geometry of a Close Binary

277

3 The Triple System T Tauri

279

4 The Next Steps

280

References

280

Keck Interferometer Observations of the Young Spectroscopic Binary Haro 1- 14c

281

1 Introduction

281

2 Observations and Data Analysis

282

3 Discussion and Future Prospects

283

References

285

Preliminary Physical Orbit of the HD 98800 B System

286

1 Introduction

286

2 Observations and Orbit Estimation

287

3 Physical Parameters of the HD 98800 B Subsystem

289

4 Comparison With PMS Evolutionary Models

289

References

290

Science: Stars — Galactic centre, AGNs, astrometry, exo- planets and future targets

291

Resolving the Dusty Tori in AGN with the VLT Interferometer

292

1 Dusty Tori in AGN: what do we expect ?

292

2 Scientific questions to be answered by interferometry

294

3 First case study: the torus in NGC1068

295

4 The MIDI guaranteed time program on AGN

297

5 First conclusions

301

6 Future interferometric insight into the cores of AGN

302

References

303

A New Analysis of MIDI Observations of the Nucleus of NGC 1068

304

1 Introduction

304

2 Different steps in data modeling

305

3 Results

306

4 Discussion

307

References

308

IRS 3 - The Brightest Compact MIR Source in the Galactic Center

309

References

314

Scientific Prospects for VLTI in the Galactic Centre: Getting to the Schwarzschild Radius

315

1 Introduction

315

2 Probing stellar dynamics in the relativistic regime

316

3 Astrometry of flares

318

References

319

Beyond the VLTI

320

1 Introdution: The VLTI and Beyond

320

2 ELSA: A Strawman Concept for an Extremely Large Synthesis Array

321

3 Science with a Next-Generation Array

321

4 Key Technologies for ELSA

322

5 Site Selection

323

References

324

The Power of Optical and Infrared Interferometry - From Dreams to Reality

326

Instrumentation: Concepts for future interferometric fringe tracking

329

Multiple Beam Fringe Tracking at VLTI

330

1 Introduction

330

2 Atmospheric limitations

331

3 Beam combination

332

4 Conclusions

334

References

334

Multiple-beam Fringe Tracking for the VLTI

335

1 Multiple-beam fringe tracking at VLTI

335

2 Solutions for multiple-beam fringe sensing

336

3 Experimental results on the BRISE bench

337

4 Conclusion

338

References

339

Instrumentation: 2nd Generation Instrumentation for the VLTI – Proposals

340

APerture Synthesis in the MID-Infrared with the VLTI

341

1 Science cases

342

2 Description of the APreS-MIDI instrument

347

References

351

VITRUV - Imaging Close Environments of Stars and Galaxies with the VLTI at Milli- Arcsec Resolution

353

1 Introduction

353

2 Science objectives

354

3 VITRUV concept

359

4 VITRUV within the VLTI infrastructure

362

5 Expected performances

362

6 Project management

363

References

364

VIDA: A Direct Spectro-Imager for the VLTI

366

1 Introduction

366

2 General description of the instrument

366

3 Science Cases

369

4 High-level requirements

369

5 Concept analysis

371

6 Performances

374

7 R&D plan and schedule

376

8 Conclusion

377

References

377

UVES-I: Interferometric High-Resolution Spectroscopy

378

1 Introduction

378

2 Scientific Case

379

3 Instrument and Infrastructure

382

4 Performance

386

5 Conclusion

388

References

389

VEGA: A Visible Spectrograph and Polarimeter for the VLTI

390

1 Introduction

390

2 Science drivers for a visible VLTI instrument

391

3 Technical description of the proposition

394

4 Performances

398

5 Conclusions

400

References

401

BOBCAT - A Photon-efficient Multi-way Combiner for the VLTI

402

1 Science case

402

2 Derived top-level requirements for imaging

403

3 BOBCAT concept description

406

4 Performance

409

5 Conclusions

413

Near-Infrared Fiber Imager for the VLTI

414

1 Introduction

414

2 Science case(s)

415

3 Technology: Integrated Optics

418

4 Summary

422

References

422

GRAVITY: The AO-Assisted, Two-Object Beam- Combiner Instrument for the VLTI

425

1 Introduction

425

2 Scientific Justification

426

3 Top Level Requirements in the Context of the VLTI Facility

432

4 GRAVITY: Concept and Observing Modes

433

5 Key Components of GRAVITY

435

6 Conclusions

437

References

437

GENIE: a Ground-Based European Nulling Instrument at ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer

439

1 Introduction

440

2 GENIE objectives

440

3 GENIE design

441

4 GENIE performance

445

5 GENIE: a general user instrument

447

6 Conclusion

450

References

450

Instrumentation: Concepts for future interferometric instrumentation

451

Multiple Anamorphic Beam Combination

452

1 Various combination schemes

452

2 Matrix multiplication of beams.

453

3 Optical design and realisation

453

4 A few comparisons and perspectives

456

Reference

456

The Potential of IR-Heterodyne Spectroscopy

457

1 Introduction

457

2 Present experimental situation

459

3 Applications in interferometry

461

References

463

Posters — Science

464

Study of the Projection Factor to Break the Frontier of Accuracy in Cepheid Distance Determination

465

1 Scientific rationale

465

2 The impact of the projection factor

465

3 Conclusion

466

References

466

LMC Cepheids with the VLTI

467

1 Scientific rationale

467

2 Main characteristics of LMC cepheids

467

3 Observing strategy and estimation of performances

467

4 Conclusion

468

References

468

Evolutionary Modeling of Nearby Stars Using Asteroseismic and Interferometric Constraints

469

References

470

Diameter Determinations from VINCI Using Global Calibration Solutions

471

1 Solving for calibrations and fitting of visibilities

471

2 Reduced zero-baseline power

473

3 Observations past the first visibility null

473

Towards the Interferometric Imaging of Red Supergiants

474

Interferometric Aperture Synthesis of Altair: Gravity Darkening and Inclination Angle

476

1 Introduction and observations

476

2 Results

476

References

477

Spectroscopic and Interferometric Tests of Stellar Atmosphere Models: UVES and VINCI Measurements of the M- giant aCet

478

1 Comparison of the

478

models with observations

478

2 Summary, results and outlook

478

References

479

The Equatorial Disk at the Center of the Planetary Nebula CPD- 568032

480

1 Introduction

480

2 MIDI observations

481

References

481

First MIDI Observations of a Be Star: a Ara

482

References

483

Probing the Outer Atmosphere of Mira Variables and the Effects of Chemical Composition on the Mid- Infrared Visibility

484

1 Introduction

484

2 MIDI observations

484

Reference

485

Temporal Variation of the Warm Molecular Layers around the Mira Variable RR Sco Detected with the VLTI/ MIDI Instrument

486

1 Introduction

486

2 MIDI observations

486

References

487

N-Band Observation of the Silicate Carbon Star IRAS08002- 3803 ( Hen 38) with VLTI/ MIDI

488

1 Introduction

488

2 MIDI observations

488

References

489

Preparing Observations of p1 Gruis Dust Shell with the VLTI/ AMBER

490

1 Astrophysical context

490

2 Geometrical models of p1 Gru

490

3 Optimal configurations vs geometrical models

491

References

491

Interferometric Observations of the Mira Star o Ceti with the VLTI/ VINCI Instrument in the Near- Infrared

492

1 Observations

492

2 Results

493

References

493

High-Resolution Near-Infrared Speckle Interferometry and Radiative Transfer Modeling of the OH/ IR Star OH 104.9+2.4

494

1 Observations

494

2 Results

495

References

495

Mid-Infrared Long-Baseline Interferometry of the Symbiotic Mira Star RX Pup with the VLTI/ MIDI Instrument

496

1 Observations

496

2 Results

497

References

497

High-Resolution Near-Infrared Speckle Interferometry and Radiative Transfer Modeling of the OH/ IR Star OH 26.5+0.6

498

1 Observations

498

2 Results

499

References

499

Near-Infrared Keck Interferometer and IOTA Closure Phase Observations of Wolf- Rayet stars

500

1 Introduction

500

2 WR 140

501

3 WR 137

501

4 IOTA Data

502

References

503

The Shape of the Inner Rim in Proto- Planetary Disks

504

1 Introduction and Model

504

References

505

Dust and Winds from Evolved Stars

506

References

507

VV CrA - The Dusty Environment of an Infrared Companion

508

1 Properties of a Southern Binary

508

2 Interferometric Observations

509

3 Radiative Transfer Modelling

509

4 The Future

510

References

510

GENIE: High-Resolution Study of Debris Disks

511

1 Simulated observations of the dust disk around . Lep

511

2 Influence of the disk parameters on the nulling ratio

512

References

513

Circumstellar Structures around Herbig AeBe Stars: A Direct Interferometric Insight

514

References

515

Observations of Circumstellar Disks

516

1 Introduction

516

2 Detection of circumstellar gas

516

3 Results

516

References

517

Fundamental Parameters of Delta Velorum, a Quintuple Stellar System.

518

1 A nearby system (˜ 24pc) containing the brightest eclipsing binary in the sky:

518

2 VINCI and AMBER observations of the eclipsing binary Aa+ Ab:

518

References

519

VLTI/MIDI Measurements of Extended Mid- Infrared Emission in the Galactic Center

520

References

521

Impact of High Spectral Resolution on Stellar Interferometry

522

1 Introduction

522

2 Some applications

523

3 Conclusion

523

References

523

Deploying an Antarctic Interferometer

524

1 Introduction

524

2 Measurements and Design Results

524

References

525

Direct Detection of Exo-Planets: GQ Lupi

526

1 Introduction: GQ Lupi and its companion

526

2 Comparison with model atmospheres

526

3 Discussion: Mass estimate for the GQ Lup companion

527

References

528

Antarctic Interferometry: Science Demonstration from the Concordia Station

529

1 Introduction

529

2 An antarctic interferometer demonstrator

530

References

530

Color-Differential Interferometry with AMBER/ VLTI. Data Processing and Precision from Early Observations.

531

1 Data processing for color-differential observables

531

2 Results

531

3 Discussion

532

The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer: A Progress Report and Preliminary Results from our Laboratory Testbed

533

1 Scientific Emphasis of the Mission

533

2 Design Realization

534

References

535

The PRIMA Astrometric Planet Search Project

536

1 Narrow-angle astrometry with the VLTI

536

2 Differential Delay Lines and Astrometric Software for PRIMA

537

3 The astrometric planet search program

537

Scientific Requirements for the Darwin Mission

539

1 High level scientific requirements of Darwin

539

2 Detailed scientific objectives and definitions

539

3 Number of planets required to constitute success

540

4 Spectral range

541

5 Baseline mission

541

Searching for Faint Companions with MIDI Colour Differential Phase Measurements

542

1 Introduction

542

2 Analysis and Results

542

3 Conclusions

543

Reference

543

Infrared Light Curves and the Detectability of Close- In Extrasolar Giant Planets

544

1 Light Curves

544

2 Theoretical Planetary Spectra

544

3 Future Work

545

References

545

Searching for VLTI Calibrators with the JMMC’s Search Calibrators Tool

546

1 The Problem

546

2 The Method

546

3 Technical aspects

547

4 Toward fainter calibrators

547

References

547

Observation of Asteroids with the VLTI

548

1 Introduction

548

2 Direct measurement of asteroid sizes with the VLTI

548

3 Conclusions

549

Extraterrestrial Search Through Temporal Coherence

550

MIA+EWS, the Software for MIDI Data- Reduction

552

1 Introduction

552

2 Supported MIDI Modes

552

3 Download and Installation

553

4 Algorithms

553

References

553

Understanding Cross Talk on the NPOI Multibeam Combiner

554

1 Introduction

554

2 Results

555

Reference

555

Posters — Instrumentation

556

A Model Experiment for APreS-MIDI

557

1 Intoduction

557

2 Physical principle and implementation of the model experiment

557

3 Data reduction

558

References

558

From the VLBI to the VLTI: An APreS-MIDI Image Reconstruction Study

559

1 Introduction

559

2 Image Reconstruction Results

559

References

560

A Numerical Simulator for VITRUV

561

1 What and How is the physics currently included ?

561

2 What can we do with this tool ?

561

References

562

Multiway Beam Combiners for VITRUV

563

1 Integrated optics and interferometry

563

2 Experimental setup

563

3 The IO beam combiner

563

4 Results

564

5 Conclusion

564

References

564

A Laboratory Interferometer for VITRUV

565

1 Introduction

565

2 Simulator description

565

3 Status and first results

566

Image Reconstruction with VITRUV

567

1 VITRUV: a spectro-imaging instrument for the VLTI

567

2 Imaging Young Stellar Objects

568

3 Conclusions

569

References

569

VITRUV Precursors: IONIC2T/IONIC3T

570

1 Instrumental context

570

2 Integrated optics-based instruments

570

3 Perspectives

572

References

572

First Results on Integrated Optics Developments for Mid- Infrared Interferometry

573

1 Introduction

573

2 Development of Dielectric Planar Waveguides

573

3 Development of Hollow Waveguides

574

References

574

APreS-MIDI, a 4 Beam Recombiner

575

1 Introduction

575

2 Instrument concept

575

3 Expected performances

576

Reference

576

First Results from SIRIUS, the Interferometric Imaging Demonstrator for VIDA

577

1 The project

577

2 Image Analysis

577

3 First results and calibration

578

4 Densification assembly

578

References

578

The Dispersed Speckles Cophasing System for Direct Imaging with VIDA

579

1 Introduction

579

2 The dispersed speckles principle

579

3 The results applied to the VIDA configuration

579

4 Conclusion

580

References

580

A New Generation of Micropositioning Devices for Optical Fiber with Submicrometric Metrology

581

1 Introduction

581

2 The principle

581

3 The software

581

4 Conclusion

582

References

582