Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Complex Liquids - An Experimental Perspective

Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Complex Liquids - An Experimental Perspective

von: Renato Torre

Springer-Verlag, 2007

ISBN: 9780387255583 , 252 Seiten

2. Auflage

Format: PDF

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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Preis: 149,79 EUR

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Mehr zum Inhalt

Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Complex Liquids - An Experimental Perspective


 

Contents

6

Contributing Authors

8

Preface

10

Chapter 1 TWO DIMENSIONAL FIFTH-ORDER RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY A New Tool for the Study of Liquid State Dynamics

12

1.1 Introduction

13

1.2 Theory

21

1.2.1 Origin of the Fifth-Order Raman Signal

24

1.2.2 Theoretical Results Summary

25

1.3 Experimental Advances

37

1.3.1 Laser Source and Experiment Synopsis

40

1.3.2 Diffractive Optics

42

1.3.3 Heterodyne Detection

45

1.3.4 Multicolor Approach

46

1.3.5 Cascaded Signals

46

1.4 Experimental Findings

51

1.5 General Discussion and Implications of the Findings for the Liquid State

65

1.6 Summary and Future Perspective

71

Acknowledgments

74

References

75

Chapter 2 OPTICAL KERR EFFECT EXPERIMENTS ON COMPLEX LIQUIDS A Direct Access to Fast Dynamic Processes

84

2.1 Introduction

84

2.2 Time-Resolved OKE Experiments

85

2.2.1 A Simple Model

87

2.2.2 The Nonlinear Optics Framework

90

2.3 The Response Function

93

2.3.1 The Linear Susceptibility Tensor and Its Correlation

95

2.3.2 The Model of Liquid Dynamics

99

2.4 The Experimental Procedure

105

2.4.1 Heterodyne Detection

110

2.4.2 HD-OKE vs. Light Scattering Signal

114

2.5 Some Experimental Results

115

2.5.1 HD-OKE in "Simple" Molecular Liquids

115

2.5.2 HD-OKE in Supercooled Liquids and Glass- Formers

122

2.5.3 The Water Case

125

Acknowledgments

128

Appendix: Laser Pulses Definition

128

Notes

130

References

130

Chapter 3 TRANSIENT GRATING EXPERIMENTS IN GLASS- FORMER LIQUIDS A Unique Tool to Investigate Complex Dynamics

139

3.1 Introduction

139

3.2 Theory of the Transient Grating Experiment

141

3.2.1 TG and Four-Wave Mixing

144

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Approach to the TG Experiments

151

3.3 Experimental Procedure

161

3.3.1 Laser System and Optical Setup

161

3.3.2 Heterodyne and Homodyne Detections

164

3.3.3 Fitting Procedure

166

3.4 Experimental Results

167

3.4.1 SupercooledWater: the Importance of the Photothermal Effect

171

3.4.2 Ortho-terphenyl: the Structural Dynamics of a Fragile Glass-Former

175

3.4.3 Glycerol: A Test of Hydrodynamic Models

180

3.4.4 Meta-Toluidine: The Rotation-Translation Coupling Effect

184

Acknowledgments

188

Appendix: Mathematical Representation of the Stretched Exponential

188

Notes

189

References

190

Chapter 4 DYNAMICAL PROCESSES IN CONFINED LIQUID CRYSTALS

195

4.1 Introduction

195

4.2 Continuum Description of Nematic Liquid Crystals

197

4.3 Fluctuational Dynamics in Nematic Liquid Crystals

199

4.4 Light Scattering by Director Fluctuations

200

4.5 Confined Liquid Crystals

202

4.5.1 Planar Cells

202

4.5.2 Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

203

4.5.3 Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

203

4.6 Fluctuation Spectrum in Confined Geometries

204

4.6.1 Fluctuation Dynamics in Thin Planar Cells

205

4.6.2 Relaxation Dynamics in PDLCs

209

4.6.3 Relaxation Dynamics in HPDLCs

209

4.7 Dynamic Light Scattering Experiments

210

4.7.1 Planar Samples

211

4.7.2 HPDLCs

216

4.8 Conclusions

222

References

223

Chapter 5 TIME- RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE AND DICHROISM IN ABSORBING LIQUIDS Intermolecular Guest- Host Interactions in Absorbing Liquids

227

5.1 Introduction

227

5.2 Photoinduced Molecular Reorientation of Absorbing Liquids and Liquid Crystals

229

5.3 Theory

233

5.3.1 TRPS fluorescence

234

5.3.2 TRPS Pump-Probe Dichroism

236

5.4 Fluorescence Experiments: Observing the Molecule Rotation in its Excited State

238

5.4.1 Deuterium Effect on Molecular Rotation and its Relationship with Optical Nonlinearity

240

5.4.2 Effect of Excitation-LightWavelength on Dye Excitation and its Relationship with Optical Nonlinearity

243

5.5 Combining Fluorescence and Dichroism Experiments: The Influence of Electronic Excitation on Rotational Friction

246

5.6 Conclusions: The Role of Hydrogen Bonding

249

References

251

Topic Index

256