Handbook of Asian Management

von: Kwok Leung, Steven White (Eds.)

Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004

ISBN: 9781402079320 , 544 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen für: Windows PC,Mac OSX,Linux

Preis: 177,95 EUR

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Mehr zum Inhalt

Handbook of Asian Management


 

FOREWORD

7

REFERENCES

11

PREFACE

12

Part I INTRODUCTION

14

1 TAKING STOCK AND CHARTING A PATH FOR ASIAN MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

15

INTRODUCTION

15

WHAT DOES RESEARCH IN ASIA OFFER?

16

Asia as a source of problems and phenomena

17

Asia as a theory-testing ground

18

Asia as a source of constructs and theory

19

Asia as an alternative cluster of management systems

20

ISSUES FOR THE FUTURE

22

Are all Asians Alike?

22

Configurational Approaches

24

Interplay of Emic and Etic Traditions

25

Interaction Processes

27

Methodological Rigor

28

CONCLUSIONS

28

REFERENCES

29

2 ETIC AND EMIC APPROACHES TO ASIAN MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

31

EMIC AND ETIC APPROACHES

31

The Concepts

31

The Etic–Emic Divide

33

DIALECTICS BETWEEN EMIC AND ETIC APPROACHES

34

Imposed Etics

35

Etics That Aim to Explain Cultural Differences

38

Emics That Stand Out

43

Integrative Approaches

47

SUGGESTIONS FOR RESEARCH

51

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

53

REFERENCES

55

Part II STRATEGY

63

3 TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGY THEORY

64

INTRODUCTION

64

Current State of Research

65

How is Strategy Different?

67

Limits of Cultural Impact

68

SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES

71

Institutional Environment

71

The Role of Governments8

73

Rate of Change

75

Regional Diversity

77

Business Networks

79

Governance Systems

81

Explaining the Differences

82

Research Implications

84

The Way Forward

86

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

87

NOTES

87

REFERENCES

90

4 CONTEXT, CONFIGURATION AND CAPABILITY

95

THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION DESIGN IN THE ASIAN CONTEXT

95

INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT AND ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN: SIX CONFIGURATIONS

97

Government Linked Enterprises (GLEs)

98

Family Business Groups (FBGs)

101

Chaebol

106

Keiretsu & Kaisha

110

Mainland China State-led Business Groups (CBGs)

115

Production Networks and Global Commodity Chains

118

CONFIGURATION AND CAPABILITY

121

GLE Capabilities

122

FBG Capabilities

123

Chaebol Capabilities

124

Keiretsu & Kaisha Capabilities

126

CBG Capabilities

126

Global Commodity Chain Capabilities

127

CONCLUSION

128

REFERENCES

131

5 FIRM DIVERSIFICATION IN ASIA

138

INTRODUCTION

138

WESTERN BASED AND DOMINANT PARADIGMS OF DIVERSIFICATION RESEARCH

139

REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES ON DIVERSIFICATION IN ASIA

141

The People’s Republic of China (the PRC)

142

Taiwan

147

Hong Kong

148

Japan

149

South Korea

150

Singapore

152

India

153

Comparative studies

155

DISCUSSION

156

CONCLUSION

159

REFERENCES

160

6 THE ASIAN MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION

164

BACKGROUND

164

ASIAN MULTINATIONALS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

178

IS THE ASIAN MULTINATIONAL A THEORETICALLY ANOMALOUS PHENOMENON?

180

MOTIVATIONS AND PROFILE OF ASIAN MULTINATIONALS

190

STRATEGY OF THE ASIAN MULTINATIONALS

192

THE ASIAN MULTINATIONALS’ BASIS OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

196

ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS

198

TYPOLOGY OF ASIAN MULTINATIONALS

199

Expatriate multinationals

199

Ethnic Multinationals

201

Government Linked Firms

202

Intermediators

202

Advanced Intermediators

203

Regional MNCs

203

The Undiversified Global Players

204

The Diversified Global Players

204

FUTURE RESEARCH ON ASIAN MULTINATIONALS

205

NOTES

209

REFERENCES

210

7 ASIAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH

215

THE CONTEXT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOR IN ASIA

216

ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOR AND ASIAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH

218

ENTREPRENEURIAL CHARACTERISTICS

218

Traits and Characteristics

218

Networks and Guanxi

223

Gender

225

MACRO-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

227

Governmental Policy

227

Finance, Taxation, and Development Schemes

228

Venture Capital

229

Societal and Entrepreneurial Culture and Religion

231

OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION

231

Business Founding

231

Growth in Number of Firms

232

Market and Niche Entry Strategies

233

Rural Entrepreneurship

234

BUSINESS GROWTH

235

Growth within the Entrepreneurial Firm

235

Entrepreneurial Competence

236

Innovation and Corporate Entrepreneurship

236

International Venturing

237

BUSINESS SURVIVAL

238

Professional Managers and Consultants

238

Succession and Survival

239

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

239

REFERENCES

241

8 THE DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN ASIA

252

INTRODUCTION

252

ALTERNATIVE PARADIGMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

253

MANAGERIAL APPROACH: CORPORATE

254

CULTURALISM AND CULTURE AS A VARIABLE

254

ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH: ORGANIZATION AS CULTURE

255

CRITICAL AND POSTMODERN APPROACHES: CULTURE AS TARGET OF CRITICISM

256

EPISTEMOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

257

QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES AND HOFSTEDE’S MIXED LEGACY

257

THE DILEMMA OF QUALITATIVE APPROACHES

258

CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON “ ASIAN” MANAGEMENT

259

PAROCHIAL UTOPIAN VIEWS AND THE FAILURE OF CORPORATE CULTURALISM

260

THE YING AND YANG OF CONFUCIAN TRADITION

262

SURPRISING EAST–WEST CONNECTIONS

264

TOWARD REFLEXIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND TRANSNATIONAL DIALOGUES

265

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

266

REFERENCES

266

9 WESTERN AND ASIAN BUSINESS ETHICS

271

INTRODUCTION

271

PART ONE: MACRO-APPROACHES TO COMPARATIVE

272

BUSINESS ETHICS

272

Section One: Normative Macro-Approaches

272

Empirical Macro-Approaches

278

Section Three: Problems with Normative and Empirical Macro- Approaches & Recommendations for Future Research

281

PART TWO: MICRO-APPROACHES TO BUSINESS ETHICS

286

Section One: Normative Micro-Approaches

286

Section Two: Empirical Micro- Approaches

289

Section Three: Problems with Normative and Empirical Micro- Approaches & Recommendations for Future Research

290

REFERENCES

292

Part III ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

299

10 ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

300

INTRODUCTION

300

ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR EAST AND WEST

303

EAST MEETS WEST

306

The Rise and Fall of “Japanese Management”

306

China: The Big Dragon as a Silent Sounding Board

309

IN SEARCH OF AN EASTERN CONSTRUCT

310

IN SEARCH OF AN EASTERN INSTRUMENT

312

THE INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT

313

ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR EAST AND THE FUTURE OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

314

WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?

316

REFERENCES

317

11 KEEPING OTHERS IN MIND

319

INTRODUCTION

319

MODES OF THINKING: RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTEXT VS. INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS

320

MAKING SENSE OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORS

323

Comparing Employees

323

Assessing the Causes of Actions

325

Assessing the Reasons for Work Performance

328

Summary

331

SOCIALLY RESPONSIVE DECISION-MAKING

331

Socially Sanctioned Decision Rules

332

Estimates about the Uncertain

334

The Social Route to Persuasion

336

Summary

337

PROCESSING AS A GROUP

338

Decision-Making as a Group

338

Integration and Different Perspectives

339

Summary

342

Decision-Making Syndromes

342

DISCUSSION

343

NOTE

345

REFERENCES

345

12 WORK MOTIVATION IN ASIA

352

INTRODUCTION

352

THE PRESENT REVIEW

353

REVIEW THEMES

353

National versus Cultural Differences

353

Comparing Mean Differences versus Patterns

358

Etic versus Emic

360

ASIAN PROGRESS AND RESEARCH STYLES

363

Integrating ‘Time’ in our Research

366

CONTEXTUAL RELEVANCE

367

CONCLUSION

369

Looking to the Future

369

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

372

REFERENCES

372

13 LEADERSHIP RESEARCH IN ASIA

376

LEADING IN ASIA: APPLYING EASTERN VALUES AND WESTERN THEORY

376

DEFINING LEADERSHIP

377

ASIAN VALUES: ORGANIZATION AS A FAMILY

378

Relationships

378

Leader as Head

379

Impact of Asian Research

380

UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

382

Leader Orientations and Approaches

382

The GLOBE Program

383

Comparisons across Asia

384

Methodological Issues

385

Negotiating Leadership

386

THE CROSS-CULTURAL CHALLENGE

386

Event Management Approach

387

COOPERATION AND COMPETITION RESEARCH

388

Theory

388

Field Studies on Leadership in Asian Organizations

389

Experiments on Power and Conflict

390

Cross-Cultural Studies

391

Applying the Theory in Asia

391

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

392

REFERENCES

393

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

393

14 INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AND EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING

399

INTRODUCTION

399

International Business Success

400

The Traits of Successful Sojourners: Linkages to Cultural Differences

401

Traits: Personality in Culture

402

Traits: Using and Sharing Skills

404

Dealing With Cultural Differences: Preparation

404

Culture and Interaction Styles

406

Various Cultural Differences and Their Impacts on

409

International Business Dealings

409

Cross-Cultural Communication and Technology

411

Multinational Organizations and High Order Communication

412

Language Specific v. Holistic Communication Styles

413

REFERENCES

414

15 IN THE EYE OF THE BEHOLDER

417

INTRODUCTION

417

Frameworks for Understanding Culture

418

DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE AND CULTURE

419

Incorporating Culture into Models of Distributive Justice

420

Distributive Justice Research: How Culture Shapes the Allocation of Rewards

423

PROCEDURAL JUSTICE AND CULTURE

425

Incorporating Culture into Theories of Procedural Justice

426

Procedural Justice Research: How Culture Shapes the Interpretation of Fair Process

428

AT THE CROSSROADS: DISTRIBUTIVE AND PROCEDURAL JUSTICE TOGETHER

430

Within Culture Studies of Justice

430

Comparative Studies of Justice

432

JUSTICE, CULTURE AND FUTURE RESEARCH

433

JUSTICE, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRACTICES

435

CONCLUSION

436

REFERENCES

437

16 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN ASIA

440

INTRODUCTION

440

CONSTRUCTS FROM ASIA

442

Collectivism

442

Indirect Communication

443

Hierarchy

444

INCORPORATING CULTURAL FINDINGS INTO A

446

FRAMEWORK OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION

446

DEFINING FRAMES, SCHEMAS, AND SCRIPTS

447

DELINEATING THE FRAMES, SCHEMAS, AND SCRIPTS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION

448

CONFLICT FRAMES

448

CONFLICT SCRIPTS

449

CONFLICT SCHEMAS

450

Collectivism

450

Indirect Communication

452

Hierarchy

452

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE FRAMEWORK ELEMENTS

453

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE QUESTIONS

454

NOTE

456

REFERENCES

456

17 A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON DIVERSITY AND GROUP DYNAMICS IN ASIA

460

INTRODUCTION

460

DIVERSITY AND GROUP DYNAMICS

461

NEW PERSPECTIVES ON DIVERSITY AND GROUP DYNAMICS IN ASIA

464

Hierarchical Complementarity vs. Heterogeneous Age Diversity

464

Leader’s Diversity in Experience vs. Horizontal Functional Diversity among Members

466

Democratic Co-existence of Diversity vs. the Catalytic Transformation of Homogeneity

468

DISCUSSION

470

NOTES

472

REFERENCES

472

18 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN ASIA

476

A REVIEW OF THE ASIAN CONTEXT AND HRM PRACTICES

478

The Asian Context

478

HRM Practices in Asia

483

A MODEL OF THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

490

The Nature of the Employment Relationship

490

Employment Relationship and HRM

494

Contextual Influence

496

ASIAN HRM REVISITED

499

CONCLUSION

501

REFERENCES

503

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

508

AUTHOR INDEX

516

SUBJECT INDEX

539