EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences - Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association

von: Mauricio Suárez, Mauro Dorato, Miklós Rédei

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9789048132522 , 332 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences - Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association


 

Contents

Contents

Introduction

10

1 Contingency and Inherency in Evolutionary Developmental Biology

12

1.1 Introduction

12

1.2 The Historical Contingency of Evolution

13

1.3 Inherency Versus Contingency?

15

1.4 Conclusion

17

References

17

2 Dualities and Intertheoretic Relations

19

2.1 Introduction

19

2.2 The Case of Electromagnetic Duality

20

2.2.1 EM Duality (1): Classical Electrodynamics

20

2.2.1.1 EM Duality in the Absence of Sources

20

2.2.1.2 Restoring EM Duality in the Presence of Sources

22

2.2.2 EM Duality (2): Quantum Electrodynamics

23

2.3 The Meaning of EM Duality

25

2.4 Concluding Remarks: Dualities and Physical Theories

27

References

28

3 Are `Identical Quantum Particles' Weakly Discernible Objects?

30

3.1 Introduction

30

3.2 Weak Discernibility

31

3.3 Remaining Worries

32

3.4 ``Physically Meaningful''

34

3.5 The Quantum Case

35

3.6 Quantum Individuals?

36

3.7 Conclusion

38

References

38

4 Wave–Particle Duality in Quantum Optics

40

4.1 What Is Wave–Particle Duality?

40

4.2 The Pragmatic Attitude: Prepare Waves and Detect Particles

43

4.3 The Which-Way Experiments of Quantum Optics

44

4.4 On What There Is

47

References

50

5 Remarks on a Structural Account of Scientific Explanation

52

5.1 Introduction

52

5.2 Structural Explanation of the Uncertainty Relations

54

5.3 Models and Explanation

56

5.4 Understanding and Explanation

58

5.5 Structural Explanation, Structural Realism

59

5.6 Structural Explanation and Causality

60

References

61

6 Mathematical Knowledge and the Interplay of Practices

63

6.1 On the Notion of Mathematical Practice

63

6.2 From Mathematical Practice to the Interplay of Practices

65

6.3 Elementary and Advanced Mathematics

67

6.4 On the Objectivity of Mathematical Knowledge

69

References

71

7 Einstein, Kant, and the A Priori

73

8 Causal Models and the Asymmetry of State Preparation

82

8.1 Introduction

82

8.2 van Fraassen's Challenge

83

8.3 Causal Models

86

8.4 The Asymmetry of State Preparation

88

8.5 Conclusion

91

References

91

9 Bell-Type Inequalities from Separate Common Causes

93

9.1 Introduction

93

9.2 Common Causes for Correlated Events

94

9.3 A Common Screener-Off Is Not a Common Common Cause

95

9.4 ``Genuine'' Separate Common Causes

96

9.4.1 Relative Minimality of Derivations

96

9.4.2 ``Genuine'' Separate Screener-Offs

97

9.5 Summary

97

References

98

10 Entanglement, Upper Probabilities and Decoherence in Quantum Mechanics

99

10.1 Upper Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics

100

10.2 The Decay of the EPR State and the Existence of a Joint Distribution

105

References

108

11 Gauge Symmetry and the Theta-Vacuum

110

11.1 Two Kinds of Symmetry

110

11.2 Warm-Up Exercise: Faraday's Cube

112

11.3 The -Vacuum

113

11.4 Two Analogies

114

11.5 Are ``Large" Gauge Transformations Empirical?

116

11.6 Are They Really Gauge Transformations?

118

11.7 The -Vacuum in a Loop Representation

120

References

121

12 The Chemical Bond: Structure, Energy and Explanation

122

12.1 Introduction

122

12.2 Chemical Structure Theory

122

12.3 The Electron and the Chemical Bond

126

12.4 Quantum Mechanics and the Chemical Bond

129

References

131

13 Randomness, Financial Markets and the Brownian Motion: A Reflection on the Role of Mathematics in Their Interaction with Financial Theory After 1973

133

13.1 Introduction

133

13.2 Options: A Brief Overview

135

13.3 The Financial and Economic Context: Options' Markets and Financial Theory

135

13.4 The Founding Articles: Black and Scholes (1973) and Merton (1973)

139

13.5 The Consolidation of a Mathematical Finance Corpus: A First Phase (1973–1983)

141

13.6 Models of Mathematical Finance and the Practice on Financial Markets

142

13.7 Conclusion

143

References

143

14 Causation Across Levels, Constitution, and Constraint

145

14.1 Introduction: Scientific Explanation and Causal Explanation

145

14.2 Reducing Causation to Mechanism?

145

14.3 ``Top-Down'' and ``Bottom-Up'' Experiments

146

14.4 The Puzzle of Downward Causation

148

14.5 Analysing Interlevel Causation in Terms of Constitution

149

14.6 Downward Causation and Downward Constraints

150

14.7 Conclusion

154

References

154

15 Epistemic Consequences of Two Different Strategies for Decomposing Biological Networks

156

15.1 Introduction

156

15.2 Modeling Strategies in Systems Biology

157

15.3 Delineating Modules

159

15.4 Compatibility of Explanatory Goals with Delineation Methods

161

15.5 Epistemic Preconceptions: How Unbiased Is ``Neutral''?

162

References

164

16 Matter(s) in Relativity Theory

166

16.1 Introduction

166

16.2 Explicit Metric Dependence

168

16.3 Definitional Dependence on the Metric

169

16.3.1 Definitional Dependence at the Level of the Matter Fields

169

16.3.2 Constraint Dependence

171

16.3.3 Abstract Definitional Dependence

172

16.3.4 Interpretational Dependence

172

16.4 Mass–Energy–Momentum as a Relational Property

173

16.5 Conclusion

175

Funding

176

References

176

17 Individual Particles, Properties and Quantum Statistics

178

17.1 Introduction

178

17.2 Classical and Quantum Statistics

179

17.3 Attempts to Avoid the Conclusion

180

17.4 A New Suggestion

183

17.5 Further Remarks

184

17.6 Conclusions

187

References

187

18 Evolution and Directionality: Lessons from Fisher's Fundamental Theorem

189

References

197

19 Substantive General Covariance: Another Decade of Dispute

199

19.1 Orthodoxy and a Recent Challenge

199

19.2 Varieties of General Covariance

202

19.3 In Search of Substantive General Covariance

204

19.4 When (Not) to See Gauge Freedom

204

19.5 An Alternative Distinction Between Theories

206

19.6 In Search of Substantive General Covariance Again

208

19.7 Conclusion

210

References

210

20 Relativity, Locality and Tense

212

References

217

21 A Weylian Approach Towards Theories of Matter: Dynamic Agents and Geometrisation

219

21.1 Introduction

219

21.2 Matter Since Early Modern Times

219

21.3 Post-Weylian Applications

221

21.4 Wavering Between Freedom and Constraint

223

References

224

22 Mirroring and Understanding Action

227

22.1 Introduction

227

22.2 What Are Mirror Neurons for?

228

22.3 Motor Goals and Action Mirroring

230

22.4 From Motor Goals to Motor Intentions

232

22.5 Conclusions

235

References

237

23 Absolute Objects and General Relativity: Dynamical Considerations

239

23.1 Introduction

239

23.2 Anderson–Friedman Program: Standard Use

241

23.3 The Meaning of the Invariance Group

242

23.4 Definitions of the Invariance Group

244

23.5 GR and Absolute Objects: The Scalar Density Counterexample

245

23.6 Concluding Remarks

248

References

249

24 Empirical Foundation of Space and Time

250

24.1 Introduction

250

24.2 Empirical Definition of Space and Time Tags

251

24.2.1 Time

252

24.2.2 Distance and the Problem of ``Rest''

253

24.2.3 Spatial Coordination

257

24.3 Inertial Motion

261

24.4 Absolute, Relative, Conventional

263

References

265

25 Making Contact with Observations

266

25.1 Introduction

266

25.2 The Lavoisier–Priestley Controversy

267

25.3 Calculating the Melting Point of Lead

272

25.4 Novel Predictions

273

25.5 Conclusion

276

References

276

26 The Formulation and Justification of Mathematical Definitions Illustrated By Deterministic Chaos

277

26.1 Introduction

277

26.2 Case Study: Topological Definitions of Chaos

278

26.3 Kinds of Justification

279

26.3.1 Natural-World-Justification

279

26.3.1.1 Devaney Chaos

280

26.3.2 Condition-Justification

281

26.3.2.1 Devaney Chaos

281

26.3.3 Redundancy-Justification

282

26.3.3.1 Devaney Chaos

282

26.3.4 The Role of These Kinds of Justification

282

26.4 Lakatos and the Importance of Proof-Generated Definitions

283

26.5 Conclusion

284

References

285

27 Do We Need Some Large, Simple Randomized Trials in Medicine?

287

27.1 Introduction: Why Randomize?

287

27.2 Selection and `Treatment' Bias

289

27.3 How Large an Effect Is Selection Bias Likely to Produce?

290

27.4 How Doll, Peto and Others Turn the Smallness of Selection Bias into an Argument for RCTs

291

27.5 Analysis of the Argument

293

27.5.1 The Issue of `External Validity'

293

27.5.2 Are Such Small Effects Worth Having?

296

27.6 Conclusion

298

References

298

28 Incontinence, Honouring Sunk Costs and Rationality

300

28.1 Honouring Sunk Costs

300

28.2 Honouring Sunk Costs, and the Two Systems of Reasoning View

301

28.3 Incontinence

304

28.4 Honouring Sunk Costs, Incontinence, and Rationality

306

References

307

29 Causal Fundamentalism in Physics

308

29.1 Introduction

308

29.2 The Dome and the Alleged Failure of Determinism (and Causality)

309

29.3 Is Newton's First Law Satisfied for the Mass on the Dome?

310

29.4 Is Newton's First Law Really Needed? Inertial Frames and the Notion of Time

312

29.4.1 Inertial Frames

313

29.4.2 The Notion of Time

314

29.5 Causality in Newtonian Mechanics and Beyond

315

29.6 Summary and Conclusions

317

References

318

Index

320