Health Assets in a Global Context - Theory, Methods, Action

von: Antony Morgan, Erio Ziglio, Maggie Davies

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9781441959218 , 362 Seiten

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Health Assets in a Global Context - Theory, Methods, Action


 

The Chapters

11

Chapter 1: Revitalising the Public Health Evidence Base: An Asset Model

41

1.1 Introduction

41

1.2 What Are Health Assets?

43

1.3 Developing the Asset Model

44

1.4 Using Salutogenesis to Build an Evidence Base for Health

45

1.5 Assets in Action

47

1.6 Assets and Evaluation

49

1.7 Conclusions

51

References

52

Chapter 2: A Salutogenic Approach to Tackling Health Inequalities

55

2.1 Introduction

55

2.2 Background

56

2.3 The Present: From Modernity to Post-Modernity

56

2.4 The Issue of Health Once Again

57

2.5 An Interdisciplinary Framework to Health?

58

2.6 Welfare as a Prerequisite for Well-Being

59

2.7 Can Learning Be Conducive to Mental Well-Being?

62

2.8 Positive Concepts of Mental Health Within Social Psychology

63

2.9 Methodological Problems in Assessment of Happiness, Well-Being and Quality of Life

66

2.10 The Concept of Resilience

68

2.11 The Salutogenic Framework

70

2.12 Contemporary Evidence on SOC and Especially in Relation to Culture and/or Mental Well-Being, Quality of Life and Healt

72

References

75

Chapter 3: A Theoretical Model of Assets: The Link Between Biology and the Social Structure

78

3.1 Introduction

78

3.2 Vectors of Causation

79

3.2.1 The Population Vector

79

3.2.2 The Societal Vector

80

3.2.3 The Organization Vector

83

3.2.4 Environment Vector

84

3.3 Lifecourse and Lifeworld

84

3.4 Coping in the Lifeworld

86

3.5 Conclusion: Assets to Control the Lifeworld

90

References

92

Chapter 4: Asset Mapping in Communities

96

4.1 Introduction

96

4.2 A Twenty-First Century Map for Healthy Communities and Families

97

References

113

Chapter 5: Assets Based Interventions: Evaluating and Synthesizing Evidence of the Effectiveness of the Assets Based Approach

114

5.1 Introduction

114

5.2 The Assets Based Approach

115

5.3 Implications for Evaluation

121

5.4 Implications for Evidence Synthesis

124

5.4.1 Evaluation vs. Effectiveness1

124

5.4.2 The Realist Critique of Meta-Analytical Systematic Reviews

126

5.4.3 The Realist Critique of Narrative Systematic Reviews

127

5.4.4 The Realist Synthesis Approach

128

5.5 An Example: The Effectiveness of Community Interventions Project

129

5.5.1 Components of the Framework

131

5.5.2 Candidate Mechanisms of the Framework

132

5.5.2.1 Component 1: Collaborative Planning

132

5.5.2.2 Component 2: Community Organization & Action

132

5.5.2.3 Component 3: Transformational Change

132

5.6 Conclusion

133

References

134

Chapter 6: Resilience as an Asset for Healthy Development

137

6.1 Introduction

137

6.2 Resilience Capability and Freedom

140

6.3 Sources of Resilience and “Healthy Choices”

141

6.4 Diet as a Source of Resilience: the Importance of the Social Context

142

6.5 Deindustrialization: Health Risks and Resilience

144

6.6 Capability and the Production of Well-Being

146

References

149

Chapter 7: How to Assess Resilience: Reflections on a Measurement Model

152

7.1 Mental Health of Children and Adolescents Within the New Morbidity

152

7.1.1 The New Morbidity and Its Consequences for Our Understanding of Health Determinants

152

7.1.2 The Rising Importance of Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence

153

7.1.3 Beyond Mental Ill-Health: The Importance of Positive Mental Health

155

7.2 Risks, Resources and Resilience: Promoting the Capacity to Cope with Adversity

156

7.2.1 Different Levels of Mental Health Determinants

156

7.2.2 Findings on Risk Factors for Mental Health and Shortcomings of the Risk Approach

157

7.2.3 How to Maintain Health Despite Adverse Conditions: Taking a Look at Resources

158

7.2.4 Resilience: Some Further Conceptual Clarifications

160

7.2.5 Models of Resilience

162

7.3 Identifying Health Assets in Order to Foster Resilience

164

7.3.1 The Potential of Population-Based Studies

164

7.3.2 Measuring Adversity: Risk Factors Assessment

165

7.3.3 Measuring Resources: Protective Factors Assessment

167

7.4 Assets in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Children: An Example from the BELLA Study

168

7.5 Conclusions

172

References

174

Chapter 8: Measuring Children’s Well-Being: Some Problems and Possibilities

179

8.1 Introduction

179

8.1.1 Summary of UNICEF Report

180

8.1.2 Why Are We Writing This Chapter?

181

8.2 What Is “Well-Being”?

182

8.3 Measuring Well-Being

185

8.3.1 Dimension 1: Material Well-Being

186

8.3.2 Dimension 2: Health and Safety

187

8.3.3 Dimension 3: Educational Well-Being

187

8.3.4 Dimension 4: Family and Peer Relationships

188

8.3.5 Dimension 5: Behaviours and Risks

190

8.3.6 Dimension 6: Subjective Well-Being

190

8.3.7 Discussion of These Dimensions

191

8.3.8 Overall Comments

191

8.4 Rights: The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

193

8.5 Conclusions

194

References

196

Chapter 9: The Relationship Between Health Assets, Social Capital and Cohesive Communities

200

9.1 Social Cohesion and Health: Theoretical Links to Health

200

9.1.1 Collective Socialization

201

9.1.2 Informal Social Control

202

9.1.3 Collective Efficacy

202

9.2 The Measurement of Social Cohesion

203

9.3 Social Cohesion and Health: Empirical Findings

205

9.4 Is Investing in Social Cohesion a Practical Strategy for Health Promotion?

208

9.5 Conclusions

210

References

210

Chapter 10: Community Empowerment and Health Improvement: The English Experience

214

10.1 Introduction

214

10.2 Community Empowerment, Development and Involvement

215

10.3 Community Empowerment and Health Improvements

217

10.4 Community Engagement in Public Health Policy and Practice

219

10.5 The Challenge of Community Empowerment and Engagement for Health Development

220

10.6 Reviewing Evidence on Good Practice in Community Empowerment, Community Engagementand Community Development an

221

10.7 Evaluative Evidence on Community Engagement/Development

223

References

224

Chapter 11: Strengthening the Assets of Women Living in Disadvantaged Situations: The German Experience

227

11.1 Introduction

227

11.2 The Concept of Movement in a Health Promotion/Health Assets Framework

228

11.2.1 Beyond Sport and Physical Activity

228

11.2.2 Movement and Social Inequality

233

11.2.2.1 Movement: Social Support and Inequality

233

11.2.2.2 Movement: Community Connectedness and Inequality

234

11.2.2.3 Movement: The Built Environment and Inequality

234

11.3 Assets for Movement

234

11.3.1 Individuals as an Asset for Movement

235

11.3.2 Organisations as an Asset for Movement

235

11.3.3 Infrastructures as an Asset for Movement

236

11.4 Assessing Assets for Movement

236

11.4.1 Methodology of Asset Assessment

236

11.4.2 Implementation of Asset Assessment

236

11.4.3 Results of Assets Assessment

238

11.5 Applying Assets for Movement in the Planning Process

240

11.5.1 Methodology of Asset Application

240

11.5.2 Implementation of Asset Application

240

11.5.3 Results of Asset Application

241

11.6 Evaluating the Use of Assets for Movement for the Development of the Interventions

241

11.6.1 Methodology of Evaluation

241

11.6.2 Results of the Evaluation

242

11.7 Conclusions

245

References

246

Chapter 12: Sustainable Community-Based Health and Development Programs in Rural India

250

Box 12.1 Jodhpur

252

12.1 Background

250

12.2 Introduction

250

12.3 Health Inequities in India

254

12.4 Policy Environment

255

12.5 Community-Based Health and Development Programme – Khoj: An Innovation for Further Adoption

257

Box 12.2 Definitions of Key Characteristics Ensuring Community Health and Development

258

Box 12.3 Khoj – A Vision for Progress in Community Health and Development Partnerships

259

12.6 Khoj Initiative – Programme Approach and Outreach

258

12.6.1 Khoj Strategies

258

12.7 Work-in-Progress and Lessons Learned

260

12.8 Khoj Thrust Areas of Work

260

12.9 Health Interventions

261

12.9.1 Women and Health

261

12.9.2 Specific Health Issues

261

12.9.3 Health Promotion

262

12.10 Community Organization

262

12.10.1 Education

263

12.10.2 Community Development

263

12.10.3 Capacity Building

263

12.10.4 Income Generation Programme

264

12.10.5 Formation of Self Help Groups

264

12.10.6 Livestock Improvement

264

12.10.7 Environment

264

12.10.8 Collaboration with the Government

264

12.10.9 Sustainability

265

12.10.10 Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation

265

12.10.11 Impact and Achievements

266

12.11 Key Learnings

267

12.12 Conclusion

269

12.13 Annex: Success Stories

271

12.13.1 Towards a Culture of Preparedness and Sustainability

271

12.13.1.1 Aparajita Orissa

271

12.13.2 Long Term Development Through Community Participation

275

12.13.2.1 Sambhav Social Service Organisation, Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh

275

References

277

Chapter 13: The Application and Evaluation of an Assets-Based Model in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Experience wi

279

13.1 Introduction

279

13.2 Background

281

13.3 The Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities Movement in LAC

283

Municipal Governments as a Strategic Health Asset: The Experience of a Malaria Prevention and Control Initiative in Central Am

284

13.4 Building the Evidence of the Effectiveness of Interventions that Incorporate an Assets-based Approach in LAC

286

13.5 PAHO’s Evaluation Initiative

286

13.6 The Application of the Participatory Evaluation Guide in LAC

287

The Application of the Participatory Evaluation Methodology to the Tai Chi in the Parks Program, in Miraflores, Peru2

291

13.7 Discussion

293

References

294

Chapter 14: Parents and Communities’ Assets to Control Under-Five Child Malaria in Rural Benin, West Africa

296

14.1 Introduction

296

14.2 International and National Context at the Time of the Study

297

14.2.1 The Heads of State and Government Summit in Abuja on Malaria

297

14.3 The Millennium Development Goals

299

14.4 Approaches Used in Benin to Control Malaria

299

14.5 How to Deal with the Persistence of Malaria?

300

14.6 Intervention (Houéto and Deccache 2008)

301

14.7 Results

303

14.7.1 At the Individual Level

303

14.7.2 At the Community Level

304

14.7.3 Health Data

304

14.8 The Critical Conditions Required to Ensurethe Effective Implementation of Assets Based Policy at a Community Level

305

14.9 New Methodologies for Constructing the Evidence Base on Assets Approaches to Health and Development

306

14.10 Conclusion

309

References

309

Chapter 15: Strengthening Asset Focused Policy Making in Hungary

314

15.1 Introduction

314

15.1.1 Health Policy Environment

314

15.1.2 Main Characteristics of Health Promotion in Hungary

315

15.1.3 The Main Assets of Promoting Health in Hungary

316

15.2 Setting the Scene

316

15.2.1 Background, Main Trends of Economic Development

316

15.2.2 Budgetary Restrictions

317

15.2.3 Facing the Uncertainties of an Economic and Financial Crisis: The Nature of Challenge

317

15.3 The New Hungary Development Plan as an Asset for Promoting Health at Central Government Level

318

15.4 Specific Features of Community Development in Eastern Europe

319

15.5 Integrating Health in Local Development Plans

321

15.5.1 The City Health Promotion Plan of Békéscsaba

321

15.5.2 The Socioeconomic Profile of Békéscsaba

321

15.5.3 Experience in Health Promotion Prior to the City Health Promotion Plan

322

15.5.4 The Development Plan of Békéscsaba: A General Framework

322

15.5.5 Setting up the City Health Promotion Plan

323

15.5.6 Key Objectives of the City Health Promotion Plan

323

15.5.7 Main Assets of the City Health Promotion Plan

324

15.6 Conclusions

326

References

326

Chapter 16: How Forms of Social Capital Can Be an Asset for Promoting Health Equity

328

16.1 Introduction

328

16.2 Types of Social Capital in Relation to Health and Health Equity

329

16.3 Bonding, Bridging and Linking Social Capital

330

16.3.1 Bonding

330

16.3.2 Bridging

332

16.3.3 Linking

333

16.4 Social Capital and Equity

333

Box 16.1 Features associated with more equitable societies likely to promote health

335

16.5 Policies, Forms of Social Capital and the Creation of Health Equity

336

16.6 Linking Social Capital and Policy

337

16.7 Bonding and Bridging Social Capital and Policy

342

16.8 Conclusion

343

References

343

Chapter 17: Internal and External Assets and Romanian Adolescents’ Health: An Evidence-Based Approach to Health Promoting Sc

346

17.1 Introduction

346

17.2 Mapping Internal and External Assets in Romanian Adolescents

347

17.3 Research Methods

350

17.4 Results

351

17.5 Internal and External Assets and AdolescentMental Health

352

17.6 Internal and External Assets and Health Behaviour

354

17.7 The “Asset Promoting School”: Providing a Framework for Policy Development

355

17.8 Conclusions

359

References

359

Chapter 18: Bringing It All Together: The Salutogenic Response to Some of the Most PertinentPublic Health Dilemmas

363

18.1 Introduction

363

18.2 The Theory of Salutogenesis

364

18.3 Asset Mapping

365

18.4 Asset Indicators

370

References

373

ConclusionsAntony Morgan, Maggie Davies, and Erio Ziglio

376