Science, Worldviews and Education - Reprinted from the Journal Science & Education

von: Michael R. Matthews

Springer-Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9789048127795 , 345 Seiten

Format: PDF

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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Science, Worldviews and Education - Reprinted from the Journal Science & Education


 

Contents

5

Preface

6

Science, Worldviews and Education: An Introduction

9

1 Introduction

9

2 Debate About the Nature of Science (NOS)

12

3 Culture and Worldviews

13

4 Science and Worldviews

17

5 Nature of Science and Worldviews in Science Curricula

19

6 Contributions to this Volume

23

7 Conclusion

31

References

31

Author Biography

33

Science, Worldviews, and Education

35

1 Introduction

36

2 A Spectrum of Opinions

36

3 Stipulatory and Substantive Issues

39

4 Seven Pillars of Science

40

5 Scientific Method

41

6 The Testability of Worldviews

45

8 Necessary and Unnecessary Presuppositions

51

9 Conclusions

53

References

54

Teaching the Philosophical and Worldview Components of Science

57

1 Introduction

57

2 Science and Philosophy

61

3 Science and Metaphysics

64

4 Science and Worldviews

67

5 Worldviews and the Scientific Revolution

68

6 The Logic of Atomism

74

7 When Worldviews Collide: The Atomistic Heresy

75

8 The Survival of Scholasticism

78

9 Options for Reconciling Worldviews

80

10 Conclusion

82

References

83

Author Biography

88

Worldviews and their relation to science

89

1 Introduction

89

2 What is a worldview?

90

3 Gauch’s seven pillars of science

95

4 Do the pillars of science have any worldview content?

96

5 Criticism and the mode of scientific explanation as sources of worldview import

99

6 Worldviews and multiculturalism: some implications for science education

102

7 Conclusion

103

References

104

Contemporary Science and Worldview-Making

106

1 Introduction

107

2 The Compelling Part of Science

109

3 What’s within Reach?

111

4 Science’s Epistemic Arrow

112

5 Teleology, Now?

114

6 Competition between Worldviews

118

References

122

The Electromagnetic Conception of Nature at the Root of the Special and General Relativity Theories and its Revolutionary Meaning

124

1 Introduction: Conceptions of Nature

124

2 Electromagnetic Conception of Nature and Special Relativity

127

3 Einstein, Hilbert and the Origins of the General Relativity Theory

128

4 Einstein’s Cosmic Religion and Hilbert’s Worldview

132

5 Conclusions: Science Education and Worldviews

137

References

138

Imagining the World: The Significance of Religious Worldviews for Science Education

141

1 The Relationship between Science and Religion

142

2 Scientific and Religious Understandings of Biodiversity

144

3 March of the Penguins

145

4 And Tango Makes Three

148

5 Possible Ways Forward When Teaching School Science

150

References

152

Whose Science and Whose Religion? Reflections on the Relations between Scientific and Religious Worldviews

155

1 Introduction

156

2 Some Preliminaries on the Nature of Science

157

3 Five Questions

158

4 Conclusion

168

References

169

Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

171

1 Major Scientific Institutions Claim That Science Cannot Test Supernatural Worldviews

172

2 Science Can Test Supernatural Claims: A Bayesian Perspective

173

3 Believing ‘‘On Faith’’

183

4 NOMA Again

185

5 Natural Psychological Explanations for the Origin and Persistence of Supernatural Worldviews

186

6 Going Wherever the Evidence Leads

187

7 Science Does Not Presuppose Naturalism. Whether or Not the Supernatural Exists Is an Empirical Question

188

8 Implications and Challenges for Science Education

190

References

192

The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

196

1 Introduction

196

2 ‘‘Scientific Activity,’’ ‘‘Worldviews,’’ ‘‘Value Outlooks’’

197

3 The ‘‘Scientific’’ Worldview and the Values of Technological Progress

199

4 Costs of Privileging the Decontextualized Approach

208

5 Conclusion

214

References

216

Fall and Rise of Aristotelian Metaphysics in the Philosophy of Science

218

1 The Enlightenment Dismissal of Aristotelian Metaphysics, and its Neo-Aristotelian Opponents

218

2 Historical Reconsiderations of the Role of Aristotelianism in Science

220

3 The Scientific Revolution and Aristotelian Metaphysics

223

4 Hume, Positivism, and the Eclipse of Aristotelianism

231

5 Rebirth of Aristotelianism in the Philosophy of Science

235

References

238

Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

242

1 Introduction

242

2 Resisting Evolution

243

3 Creationism in Turkey

246

4 Varieties of Creationism

248

5 Partial Acceptance of Evolution

251

6 Created Nature

253

7 An Illusion of Harmony

255

8 Conclusion

258

References

258

Science and worldviews in the marxist tradition

261

1 Introduction

261

2 Science: Materialist Ontology, Realist Epistemology, Social Activity

263

3 The Theoretical Landscape of Marxism

264

4 Marx’s Encounter with Natural Philosophy and Materialism

266

5 Marx’s Science-Realism

267

6 Science as Social Activity: The Conceptual Autonomy of Science

269

7 Marxism among the Scientists. Implications for Science Education

270

References

272

Science and Worldviews in the Classroom: Joseph Priestley and Photosynthesis

274

1 Introduction

274

2 Some Appraisals of Priestley

276

3 Priestley’s Life

277

4 Priestley’s Publications

279

5 Priestley and the Enlightenment

279

6 The Philosophical and Experimental Path to Photosynthesis (‘The Restoration of Air’)

282

7 Priestley’s First Steps towards the Discovery of Photosynthesis

285

8 Priestley’s Final Steps Towards Photosynthesis

290

9 Priestley’s Providential Worldview

293

10 Priestley in the Classroom

296

11 Conclusion

300

References

301

Responses and Clarifications Regarding Science and Worldviews

306

1 Introduction

306

2 Worldview Reasoning

307

3 Worldview Evidence

310

4 Worldview Convictions

319

5 Additional Responses and Clarifications

322

6 Seven Questions for the AAAS and NAS

326

7 Conclusions

327

References

327

Author Index

329

Subject Index

336