Vehicle Routing under Consideration of Driving and Working Hours - A Distributed Decision Making Perspective

von: Manuel Meyer

Gabler Verlag, 2011

ISBN: 9783834967329 , 152 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen für: Windows PC,Mac OSX,Linux

Preis: 95,19 EUR

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Mehr zum Inhalt

Vehicle Routing under Consideration of Driving and Working Hours - A Distributed Decision Making Perspective


 

Foreword

6

Preface

8

Contents

10

List of Figures

13

List of Tables

14

Abbreviations

15

1 Introduction

16

1.1 Problem Description

17

1.2 Related Literature

18

1.3 Objectives and Structure of the Thesis

21

2 European Legislation on Driving and Working Hours in Road Transportation

23

2.1 Regulation (EC) No 561/2006 on Driving Hours

23

2.1.1 Scope

24

2.1.2 Definitions

25

2.1.3 Restrictions on Driving Hours

26

2.1.4 Documentation of Driving Times

28

2.1.5 Comparison Between Current and Former European Legislation on Driving Hours

30

2.2 Directive 2002/15/EC on Working Hours

34

2.2.1 Scope

34

2.2.2 Definitions

35

2.2.3 Restrictions on Working Hours

35

2.2.4 Implementation into German Legislation

36

2.3 Remarks on the General Structure of the European Social Legislation

36

2.4 Control Policies

37

3 Dispatchers’ Tasks in Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

39

3.1 The Dispatching Process

39

3.2 The Impact of the European Social Legislation on the Dispatching Process

41

3.2.1 Effects on Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

42

3.2.2 Examples of Effects

43

3.3 Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling in Practice

46

3.3.1 Methodology of the Study

46

3.3.2 Interviews with Freight Forwarding Companies

47

3.3.3 Summary of the Findings

51

4 Model for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and European Social Legislation

53

4.1 Model for the VRPTW-EU with Basic Rules

54

4.1.1 Problem Definition

55

4.1.2 Notation

57

4.1.3 Model Formulation

59

4.2 Model for the VRPTW-EU with Optional Rules

64

4.2.1 Problem Definition

64

4.2.2 Notation

65

4.2.3 Model Formulation

66

4.3 Computional Experiments

72

4.3.1 Experimental Settings

73

4.3.2 Computational Results for the VRPTW-EU

74

4.3.3 Example of a Tour Plan

78

5 Distributed Decision Making in Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

80

5.1 The Distributed Decision Making Framework

81

5.1.1 Classification of Distributed Decision Making Systems

82

5.1.2 Coordination in Distributed Decision Systems

83

5.2 The Problem of Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling as a Problem of Distributed Decision Making

86

5.2.1 Distribution of Tasks between Planners and Drivers

86

5.2.2 Anticipation of the Drivers’ Planning

89

5.3 Model Formulations

91

5.3.1 Driver’s Model

91

5.3.2 Dispatcher’s Model

96

5.3.3 Anticipation Functions

97

5.3.3.1 Perfect Explicit Anticipation

97

5.3.3.2 Approximate Explicit Anticipation

98

5.3.3.3 Implicit Anticipation

100

5.4 Computational Experiments for the Decentralized Approaches

101

5.4.1 Experimental Settings and Solution Procedure

101

5.4.2 Computational Results

103

5.4.2.1 Perfect Explicit Anticipation

103

5.4.2.2 Approximate Explicit Anticipation

105

5.4.2.3 Implicit Anticipation

107

5.4.3 Summary of the Findings

111

6 Restricted Dynamic Programming Heuristic for the Problem of Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

115

6.1 Dynamic Programming Methods for Vehicle Routing Problems

115

6.1.1 Dynamic Programming Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem

116

6.1.2 Restricted Dynamic Programming Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem

118

6.1.3 Solving Vehicle Routing Problems via Giant-Tour Representations

118

6.2 Restricted Dynamic Programming Heuristic for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and European Social Legislation

120

6.2.1 Basic Break Scheduling Method

122

6.2.2 Extended Break Scheduling Method

126

6.2.2.1 Extended Daily Driving Times

126

6.2.2.2 Reduced Daily Rest Periods

127

6.2.2.3 Split Breaks

128

6.2.2.4 Split Daily Rest Periods

129

6.2.2.5 Overview of the Implementations of the Optional Rules

130

6.2.3 Extensions to Different Time Horizons

131

6.2.4 Computational Experiments

131

6.3 Distributed Decision Making Using the Restricted Dynamic Programming Heuristic

137

6.3.1 Computational Experiments for the Decentralized Planning Approach

138

6.3.1.1 Team Situation

138

6.3.1.2 Non-Team Situation

142

6.3.2 Summary of the Findings

144

7 Conclusions and Further Research

146

7.1 Conclusions for Vehicle Routing Under Consideration of Driving and Working Hours

146

7.2 Outline of Further Research Directions

148

Bibliography

151