Quirky Sides of Scientists - True Tales of Ingenuity and Error from Physics and Astronomy

Quirky Sides of Scientists - True Tales of Ingenuity and Error from Physics and Astronomy

von: David R Topper

Springer-Verlag, 2007

ISBN: 9780387710198 , 210 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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Quirky Sides of Scientists - True Tales of Ingenuity and Error from Physics and Astronomy


 

Acknowledgments

6

A Note on the Figures

7

Contents

8

Prelude

11

Tenacity and Stubbornness: Einstein on Theory and Experiment

13

1.1. Tenacity

13

1.2. Stubbornness

17

1.3. EinsteinÌs Experiment

20

Notes and References

23

Convergence or Coincidence: Ancient Measurements of the Sun and MoonÛ How Far?

25

2.1. The Speed of Light

25

2.2. Ancient Astronomy: Ptolemy

27

2.3. AristarchusÌs Measurement and PtolemyÌs Model

29

Notes and References

34

The Rationality of Simplicity: Copernicus on Planetary Motion

35

3.1. Planetary Motion: Geocentrism

35

3.2. Heliocentrism: The Hierarchy of the Planets

40

3.3. Heliocentrism: Planetary Distances

42

3.4. Copernicus and Simplicity

44

3.5. Copernicus and Complexity

45

Notes and References

50

The Silence of Scientists: VenusÌs Brightness, EarthÌs Precession, and the Nebula in Orion

52

4.1. Ptolemy on Venus

52

4.2. Copernicus on Venus

55

4.3. Galileo on Venus

57

4.4. Galileo, Sunspots, and Precession

61

4.5. Galileo and Nebulae

71

Notes and References

74

Progress Through Error: Stars and QuasarsÛ How Big, How Far?

76

5.1. Copernicus and the Distance of Stars

76

5.2. Tycho and Parallax

78

5.3. Galileo on the Stars

84

5.4. Quasars and Cosmology

86

Notes and References

92

The Data Fit the Model but the Model is Wrong: Kepler and the Structure of the Cosmos

93

6.1. Neutrinos and SydneyÌs Opera House

93

6.2. Kepler and GodÌs Mind

95

6.3. Kepler and the Equant

104

6.4. KeplerÌs Music of the Heavens, and Beyond

108

Notes and References

114

Art Illustrates Science: Galileo, a Blemished Moon, and a Parabola of Blood

116

7.1. Galileo and Cigoli

116

7.2. Galileo and Artemisia

122

Notes and References

128

Ensnared in Circles: Galileo and the Law of Projectile Motion

129

8.1. The Problem with Projectiles

129

8.2. GalileoÌs Abstraction

131

8.3. The Relativity of Motion and the Rotating Earth

133

8.4. GalileoÌs Inertia in Context

136

Notes and References

143

Aesthetics and Holism: Newton on Light, Color, and Music

144

9.1. Newton Creates the Spectrum

144

9.2. Newton Counts the Colors

148

9.3. From Colors to Music

151

9.4. NewtonÌs Holism

153

Notes and References

157

Missing OneÌs Own Discovery Newton and the First Idea of an Artificial Satellite

159

10.1. The Principia Project: Origin and Execution

159

10.2. NewtonÌs SketchÛand the Problem

164

10.3. The Projectile Path: What Did Newton Know?

167

10.4. Newton and Hooke: A Debate Over a Spiral

173

Notes and References

176

A Change of Mind: Newton and the Comet(s?) of 1680 and 1681

177

11.1. Comets and a Celestial Physics

178

11.2. NewtonÌs Struggle with a Celestial Physics

185

Notes and References

190

A Well-Nigh Discovery: Einstein and the Expanding Universe

191

12.1. Nebulae and Galaxies

191

12.2. EinsteinÌs Cosmological Model

192

12.3. Observational Astronomy in the Early 20th Century

195

12.4. Einstein Defends His Cosmological Constant

200

Notes and References

203

Postlude

204

Notes and References

205