Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes

Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes

von: Stanislaw R. Massel

Springer-Verlag, 2007

ISBN: 9780387690926 , 316 Seiten

2. Auflage

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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Preis: 192,59 EUR

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Mehr zum Inhalt

Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes


 

Preface

7

Contents

10

Chapter 1 Basic processes near the air–sea interface

16

1.1 Introduction

16

1.2 Sea water

17

1.3 The state of matter near the interface

20

Chapter 2 Mechanics of steep and breaking waves

25

2.1 Introduction

25

2.2 Theory of the almost-highest waves

26

2.3 Instabilities of uniform wave trains

30

2.4 Numerical modelling of steep waves and their evolution to breaking

37

Chapter 3 Spectral and statistical properties of ocean waves

44

3.1 Introduction

44

3.2 Spectral properties of ocean waves

45

3.3 Statistical properties of ocean waves

57

Chapter 4 Experimental insights into mechanisms of wave breaking

87

4.1 Introduction

87

4.2 Definitions of parameters of steep and breaking waves

88

4.3 Field observations on wave breaking

91

4.4 Laboratory experiments on wave breaking

99

4.5 Physical simulation of extreme ocean waves in large scale

117

4.6 Detection of breaking in a given wave record

120

4.7 Summary of experimental data

128

Chapter 5 Wave breaking criteria and probability of breaking

133

5.1 Introduction

133

5.2 Limiting wave steepness criterion

135

5.3 Limiting vertical acceleration criterion

140

5.4 Kinematic breaking criterion

161

5.5 Probability of wave breaking for modulated second- order Stokes waves

165

Chapter 6 Energy dissipation due to wave breaking

168

6.1 Introduction

168

6.2 Experiments on the rates of energy dissipation in breaking waves

169

6.3 Theoretical models of wave energy dissipation

175

6.4 Summary of formulae for wave energy dissipation

190

Chapter 7 Whitecap coverage of the sea surface

193

7.1 Introduction

193

7.2 Experimental data on whitecap coverage

194

7.3 Theoretical models of whitecap coverage

203

7.4 Summary of data and theoretical formulae on whitecap coverage

214

Chapter 8 Fundamentals of marine aerosols

217

8.1 Introduction

217

8.2 Bubble entrainment in breaking waves

218

8.3 Definitions of aerosol particle size, concentrations, fluxes and spray generation functions

220

8.4 Mechanisms of aerosol production

226

8.5 Remarks on influence of marine aerosols on climate

235

Chapter 9 Marine aerosol fluxes

239

9.1 General considerations

239

9.2 Methods of determining size-dependent sea spray generation functions

240

Chapter 10 Aerosol flux as a function of sea state parameters

257

10.1 Introduction

257

10.2 Governing relationships

258

10.3 Dependence of energy dissipation rate on sea state parameters

259

10.4 Dependence of whitecap coverage on sea state parameters

262

10.5 Dependence of aerosol flux on sea state parameters

263

10.6 Dimensional analysis of aerosol flux from the sea surface

267

10.7 Alternative representation of aerosol flux

268

Chapter 11 Seasonal dependence of aerosol fluxes in the Baltic Sea

271

11.1 Introduction

271

11.2 Wind field in the Baltic Sea

271

11.3 Wave climate in the Baltic Sea

273

11.4 Seasonal dependence of the aerosol budget over the Baltic Sea

274

Appendix A Amplitudes

281

Appendix B Wavelet transform

282

B.1 Introduction

282

B.2 Definition of wavelets

283

B.3 Time and frequency resolution in wavelets

284

B.4 Energy properties of wavelets

285

Appendix C Hilbert transform and instantaneous frequency

287

C.1 Definition of Hilbert transform

287

C.2 Digital computation of Hilbert transform

288

C.3 Stream function as a Hilbert transform of velocity potential

288

C.4 Instantaneous frequency

289

Appendix D Relationships between spectral moments and sea state parameters

291

D.1 Spectral moments as a function of non- dimensional wind fetch

291

D.2 Spectral moments as a function of significant wave height and peak frequency

293

References

294

Symbols and Notations

314

Author Index

319

Subject Index

325