Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 208 - Perfluorinated alkylated substances

von: Pim De Voogt

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9781441968807 , 224 Seiten

Format: PDF

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

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Preis: 149,79 EUR

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Mehr zum Inhalt

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 208 - Perfluorinated alkylated substances


 

Special Foreword

4

Foreword

7

Preface

9

Contents

11

Contributors

12

Atmospheric Perfluorinated Acid Precursors: Chemistry, Occurrence, and Impacts

13

1 Introduction

14

2 Mechanisms of Atmospheric Formation of Perfluorinated Acids

16

2.1 Perfluorocarboxylic Acids

16

2.1.1 Mechanisms for Atmospheric Formation of Perfluoroacyl Halides

16

2.1.2 Mechanisms for Direct Atmospheric Formation of PFCAs

20

2.2 Perfluorosulfonic Acids (PFSAs)

23

3 Chemistry of Perfluorinated Acid (PFA) Precursors

24

3.1 Volatile Anesthetics

25

3.1.1 CF3 (CF2) x CHClBr

25

3.1.2 CF3 (CF2) x CHClOCHF2

27

3.2 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

28

3.2.1 CF3 (CF2) x CHFCl

28

3.2.2 CF3 (CF2) x CHCl2

32

3.3 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs, Non-telomer Based)

34

3.3.1 Saturated Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

34

3.3.2 Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs)

41

3.4 Fluorotelomer and Related Compounds

47

3.4.1 Perfluorinated Aldehyde (PFAL) Hydrates

47

3.4.2 Perfluorinated Aldehydes (PFALs)

53

3.4.3 Fluorotelomer Aldehydes (FTALs)

57

3.4.4 Odd Fluorotelomer Alcohols (oFTOHs)

59

3.4.5 Even Fluorotelomer Alcohols (FTOHs)

60

3.4.6 Fluorotelomer Olefins (FTOs)

63

3.4.7 Fluorotelomer Iodides (FTIs)

65

3.4.8 Fluorotelomer Acrylate (FTAc)

66

3.5 Perfluoroalkanesulfonamides

68

3.5.1 N -Alkyl-perfluoroalkanesulfonamides (NAFSA)

68

3.5.2 N -Alkyl-perfluoroalkanesulfamidoethanols (NAFSE)

71

4 Atmospheric Sources and Levels

73

4.1 Volatile Fluorinated Anesthetics

73

4.2 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

73

4.2.1 Potential Sources to the Atmosphere

73

4.2.2 Atmospheric Concentrations

73

4.3 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs, Non-telomer Based)

74

4.3.1 Saturated Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

74

4.3.2 Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs)

78

4.4 Fluorotelomer Compounds

78

4.4.1 Potential Sources to the Atmosphere

78

4.4.2 Atmospheric Concentrations

79

4.5 Perfluorosulfonamides

89

4.5.1 Potential Sources to the Atmosphere

89

4.5.2 Atmospheric Concentrations

94

5 Impact of Precursors on Environmental Perfluorinated Acid (PFA) Levels

94

5.1 Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA)

94

5.2 Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS), Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorononanoic Acid (PFNA)

106

5.3 Long-Chained Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs)

109

6 Summary

110

References

110

Isomer Profiling of Perfluorinated Substances as a Tool for Source Tracking: A Review of Early Findings and Future Applications

122

1 Introduction

122

2 Isomer Nomenclature

123

3 Historical and Current Manufacturing Sources of Perfluoroalkyl Isomers

126

4 Isomer-Specific Analytical Methodologies

134

4.1 Current Analytical Separation Methods

134

4.2 Analytical Quantification Bias

137

4.3 Strategies for Isomer Separation by LC--MS/MS

141

5 Influence of PhysicalChemical Properties on Environmental Fractionation of Perfluoroalkyl Isomers

142

6 Characterization of Perfluoroalkyl Isomer Profiles in the Environment

148

6.1 PFOA Isomer Profiles

148

6.2 Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonate and Sulfonamide Isomer Profiles

150

6.3 Perfluorocarboxylate Isomer Profiles Other than PFOA

159

7 Differences in Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of PFA Isomers

160

8 Summary

164

References

165

Biodegradation of Fluorinated Alkyl Substances

172

1 Introduction

172

2 The Persistence of Perfluorinated Surfactants

173

3 Understanding the Complex Biodegradation of Fluorotelomer-based Chemicals

176

4 Biodegradation of N-Alkyl Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide Derivatives

179

5 The Role of Fluorinated Polymers

181

6 On the Way to Mineralization Biodegradation of Organic Molecules that Have Low Fluorine Content

182

7 Summary

185

References

186

Perfluorinated Substances in Human Food and Other Sources of Human Exposure

189

1 Introduction

189

2 PFCs in Edible Fish and Seafood

190

3 Contamination of Food

205

3.1 Indirect Contamination of PFCs in Food Items

205

3.2 Direct Contamination of PFCs in Commercial Food Items

206

4 PFCs in Drinking Water

209

5 Safety Limits and Tolerable Daily Intakes

212

6 Perfluorinated Compounds in House Dust and Air

214

7 Correlation Between PFCs

217

8 Outlook

219

9 Summary

219

References

221

Index

226