Eutrophication: causes, consequences and control

Eutrophication: causes, consequences and control

von: Abid A. Ansari, Singh Gill Sarvajeet, Guy R. Lanza, Walter Rast

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9789048196258 , 394 Seiten

2. Auflage

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Eutrophication: causes, consequences and control


 

Foreword

5

Preface

7

Contents

9

Contributors

11

1 Eutrophication and Climate Change: Present Situation and Future Scenarios

14

1.1 Preamble

14

1.2 The Wax and Wane of Lake and River Eutrophication

15

1.3 Evidence of Climate Change -- Does It Matter?

19

1.4 What Do We Know About Climate Impacts on Inland Waters?

20

1.5 Consequences of Climate Change for Inland Waters -- Future Scenarios

22

1.6 Concerns, Adaptation and Mitigation

25

1.7 Epilogue

26

References

26

2 Controlling Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat

30

2.1 Background and Aim of the Work

30

2.2 Basic Information

33

2.2.1 Morphometric Data and Criteria for the Vertical Layers

35

2.2.2 Sediments and Bottom Dynamic Conditions

42

2.2.3 Trends and Variations in Water Variables

43

2.2.4 The Dilemma Related to Predictions of Cyanobacteria

47

2.2.5 The Reasons Why This Modeling Is Not Based on Dissolved Nitrogen or Phosphorus

48

2.2.6 The Reasons Why It Is Generally Difficult to Model Nitrogen

50

2.2.7 Comments and Conclusions

50

2.3 Water, SPM, Nutrient, and Bioindicator Modeling

51

2.3.1 Background on Mass Balances for Salt and the Role of Salinity

51

2.3.2 Water Fluxes

54

2.3.3 Mass Balances

56

2.3.3.1 Phosphorus Dynamics

56

2.3.4 SPM Dynamics

59

2.3.5 Nitrogen Fluxes

62

2.3.6 Predicting Chlorophyll-a Concentrations

64

2.3.7 Predicting Water Clarity and Secchi Depth

66

2.3.8 Conclusions

67

2.4 Management Scenarios

68

2.4.1 Reductions in Tributary Phosphorus Loading to the Baltic Sea

69

2.4.2 Reductions in Tributary Phosphorus Loading to the Kattegat from Sweden

71

2.4.3 Reductions in Tributary Nitrogen Loading to the Kattegat from Sweden

71

2.4.4 An ''Optimal'' Management to Reduce the Eutrophication in the Kattegat

71

2.4.5 Effective and Cost-Effective Nutrient Reductions

73

2.4.6 Comments and Conclusions

75

2.5 Summary and Recommendations

76

References

78

3 Eutrophication Processes in Arid Climates

81

3.1 Introduction

81

3.1.1 Eutrophication Process

81

3.1.1.1 Natural Eutrophication

82

3.1.1.2 Eutrophication by Human Activities

82

3.1.2 Eutrophication Classification

82

3.1.2.1 Oligotrophic

82

3.1.2.2 Mesotrophic

82

3.1.2.3 Eutrophic

82

3.1.2.4 Dystrophic

82

3.1.3 Causes of Eutrophication and Supporting Factors

82

3.1.3.1 Nutrients

83

3.1.3.2 Availability of Nutrients

83

3.1.3.3 Factors Supporting the Development of Eutrophication

84

3.1.3.4 Sources of Nutrients

84

3.1.4 Effects of Eutrophication

84

3.1.5 Trihalomethanes

86

3.1.5.1 Disinfection

86

3.1.5.2 Natural Organic Matter (NOM)

87

3.1.5.3 Trihalomethanes

87

3.1.5.4 THM Formation Potential

88

3.1.6 Control of Disinfection By-product

88

3.1.6.1 Organic Precursor Removal

88

3.1.7 King Abdullah Canal (KAC): A Case Study

91

3.1.7.1 Introduction

91

3.1.7.2 The Study Area

92

3.1.7.3 Results

93

3.1.8 Conclusions

101

References

101

4 Eutrophication and Restoration of Shallow Lakes from a Cold Temperate to a Warm Mediterranean and a (Sub)Tropical Climate

103

4.1 Shallow Lakes

103

4.2 North Temperate "Cold Shallow Lakes"

104

4.2.1 Alternative Stable States

104

4.2.2 Role of Vegetation

106

4.2.3 Eutrophication

107

4.3 Shallow Lakes in Different Climatic Regions

107

4.3.1 Functioning and Eutrophication of Mediterranean Shallow Lakes

108

4.3.2 Functioning and Eutrophication of Subtropical and Tropical shallow Lakes

110

4.3.3 Role of Vegetation in Mediterranean and (Sub)Tropical Shallow Lakes

112

4.4 Restoration of Eutrophicated Cold and Warm Shallow Lakes

112

4.4.1 Biological Methods

113

4.4.1.1 Fish Manipulation

113

4.4.1.2 Protection of Submerged Plants and Transplantation

115

4.4.1.3 Combating Nuisance Plant Growth

115

4.4.2 Physico-Chemical Methods

115

4.5 Climate Change Gives Future Challenges

116

References

117

5 Trophic State and Water Quality in the Danube Floodplain Lake (Kopacki Rit Nature Park, Croatia) in Relation to Hydrological Connectivity

121

5.1 Introduction

121

5.2 Study Area

122

5.3 Sediment Biota (Research Review 1997--2002)

122

5.4 Hydrological Regime (2002--2005)

124

5.5 Water Quality Parameters

127

5.5.1 Phytoplankton Chlorophyll

128

5.5.2 Bacterial Abundance

128

5.6 Primary Productivity

129

5.7 Trophic State in Relation to Hydrological Connectivity

129

5.8 Nutrient Enrichment Bioassay

131

5.9 Weed-Bed Invertebrates Characterize Trophic State

134

5.10 Occurrence of Invasive Invertebrates

136

5.11 Conclusion Remarks and the Basis for Future Research

137

References

138

6 Mediterranean Climate and Eutrophication of Reservoirs: Limnological Skills to Improve Management

142

6.1 Introduction

142

6.2 Effects of the Mediterranean Climate and Insularity on Eutrophication Patterns in Sicily

144

6.2.1 Top-Down Effects Caused by Water-Level Fluctuations

144

6.2.2 Bottom-Up Effects Caused by Water-Level Fluctuations

145

6.3 Phosphorus Loadings in Sicilian Reservoirs

148

6.4 Consequences of Eutrophication on Public Health

148

6.5 Eco-friendly Procedures to Control Eutrophication and Their Effectiveness

150

6.6 Conclusion

151

References

151

7 Eutrophication: Threat to Aquatic Ecosystems

154

7.1 Water

154

7.2 Eutrophication

155

7.3 Eutrophication: A Global Scenario

156

7.4 Nutrients in Aquatic Ecosystems

159

7.5 Eutrophication and Aquatic Environment

161

7.6 Eutrophication and Aquatic Biodiversity

163

7.7 Eutrophication in Wetland Ecosystems

167

7.8 Biological Monitoring and Impact Assessment

169

7.9 Biological Restoration of Eutrophic Waters

173

7.10 Engineered and Technological Correctives

174

References

176

8 Eutrophication Problem in Egypt

182

8.1 Introduction

182

8.2 Abu Qir Bay

185

8.3 Eastern Harbour

189

8.4 Western Harbour

193

8.5 Dekhaila Harbour

196

8.6 Mex Bay

199

8.7 Conclusions

201

References

201

9 Freshwater Wetland Eutrophication

206

9.1 Introduction

206

9.2 The Wetland Hydroperiod and Nutrient Transformations

207

9.2.1 Biogeochemical Transformations in Wetlands Under Anaerobic Conditions

208

9.2.2 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Wetlands

209

9.3 Main Nutrient Sources to Wetlands: External Load vs. Internal Load

211

9.4 Biogeochemical Responses of Wetlands to Nutrient Enrichment

212

9.5 The Biological Effects of Wetland Eutrophication: Community Structure, Alternative Stable States, and Trophic Cascades

214

9.6 Biomanipulation of Wetlands as a Tool for Eutrophication Mitigation

215

9.7 Conclusion

218

References

218

10 Effects of Contamination by Heavy Metals and Eutrophication on Zooplankton, and Their Possible Effects on the Trophic Webs of Freshwater Aquatic Ecosystems

222

10.1 Introduction

222

10.2 Methodology

223

10.3 Results

225

10.3.1 Environmental Context

225

10.3.2 Zooplankton Structure

228

10.3.2.1 Abundance

228

10.3.2.2 Biomass

229

10.3.2.3 Species Richness and Species Diversity

229

10.4 Discussion

230

10.4.1 Integrating Possible Effects of Eutrophication and Heavy Metal Contamination on the Trophic Webs of Freshwater Ecosystems

231

10.5 Summary

233

References

233

11 Impact of Eutrophication on the Seagrass Assemblages of the Mondego Estuary (Portugal)

235

11.1 Introduction

235

11.2 Case Study: The Mondego Estuary

236

11.2.1 Anthropogenic Pressures

237

11.2.2 Eutrophication in the South Arm

237

11.2.3 Management Measures to Control Eutrophication

237

11.3 Materials and Methods

237

11.3.1 Sampling Programme and Laboratory Procedures

237

11.3.2 Macrobenthic Feeding Guild Assignments

238

11.3.3 Secondary Production

238

11.4 Results

238

11.4.1 Climate

238

11.4.2 Nutrient Dynamics

239

11.4.3 Primary Producers

239

11.4.4 Macrofauna Community General Trends

240

11.4.4.1 Changes in Diversity

240

11.4.4.2 Changes in Density, Biomass and Production

241

11.4.4.3 Feeding Guilds Relative Composition

243

11.4.5 Species-Specific Responses

245

11.4.5.1 Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda)

245

11.4.5.2 Cyathura carinata (Isopoda)

245

11.4.5.3 Scrobicularia plana (Bivalvia)

246

11.4.5.4 Hediste diversicolor (Polychaeta)

247

11.4.5.5 Alkmaria romijni and Capitella capitata (Polychaeta)

247

11.5 Discussion

248

11.5.1 Eutrophication Effects

248

11.5.1.1 Macroalgal Bloom Dynamics in the Eutrophic Area

250

11.5.2 Differences Between Sites

253

11.5.3 Pre-mitigation versus Post-mitigation Periods

253

11.5.4 Evaluation of the Ecosystem Recovery

254

References

255

12 Aquatic Plant Diversity in Eutrophic Ecosystems

257

12.1 Introduction

257

12.2 Plant Diversity: Eutrophic Ecosystems

259

12.2.1 Phytoplankton Diversity

260

12.2.2 Macrophyte Diversity

260

12.2.3 Wetland Diversity

261

12.3 Plant Diversity: Nutrient Limitations

262

12.4 Plant Diversity: Environmental Factors

262

12.5 Plant Diversity: Succession Pathways

263

12.6 Plant Diversity: Assessment and Monitoring

264

12.7 Plant Diversity: Indicator of Eutrophication

264

12.8 Plant Diversity: Measurements

265

12.8.1 Frequency

265

12.8.2 Density

265

12.8.3 Abundance

266

12.8.4 Diversity Indices

266

12.9 Discussion

267

References

269

13 Linking Anthropogenic Activities and Eutrophication in Estuaries: The Need of Reliable Indicators

274

13.1 Introduction

274

13.1.1 Estuaries and Salt Marshes

275

13.1.2 Nutrient Loading and Plant Responses

276

13.1.3 The Selection of Indicators

276

13.1.4 Scope and Goals

277

13.2 General Approach

278

13.2.1 Study Areas

278

13.2.2 Eutrophication Status: Comparison Between Estuaries

279

13.2.3 Historical Nutrient History

280

13.3 Results and Discussion

281

13.3.1 Eutrophication Status: Comparison Between Estuaries

281

13.3.1.1 Nitrogen and Carbon Concentrations

281

13.3.1.2 Plant Aboveground Biomass

283

13.3.1.3 Nitrogen Stable Isotopes

285

13.3.2 Historical Nutrient History

285

13.4 Concluding Remarks

288

References

288

14 Successful Restoration of a Shallow Lake: A Case Study Based on Bistable Theory

294

14.1 Defining the Problem

294

14.2 The Theory of Stable States -- Reloaded

295

14.3 The Study Site

296

14.3.1 What Happened? Causes of Change

296

14.3.2 How to Restore? The Concept of Remediation

298

14.4 Conclusions from a Successful Story

301

References

302

15 Biomanipulation in Lake Arungen, Norway: A Tool for Biological Control

304

15.1 Introduction

305

15.1.1 Why Lake Biomanipulation?

305

15.1.2 Increased Piscivory: A Target of Biomanipulation

306

15.1.3 Prey Fish Behavior: A Role of Piscivory

307

15.1.4 Effects of Biomanipulation on Pollutants

307

15.1.4.1 Mercury

307

15.1.4.2 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

307

15.1.5 Aims and Objectives

308

15.1.6 Study Area

308

15.2 Materials and Methods

310

15.2.1 Exploitation of Large Pike and Its Population Recruitment

310

15.2.2 Relative Abundance and Habitat Use of Perch and Roach

311

15.2.3 Diet Analysis

312

15.2.4 Food Web Analysis Using Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen and Carbon

312

15.2.5 Total Mercury Concentrations and Its Transfer Patterns

312

15.2.6 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

313

15.3 Results

313

15.3.1 Recruitment of Pike After Population Manipulation

313

15.3.2 Relative Abundance and Habitat Use

313

15.3.3 Diets and Food Web Structure

315

15.3.4 Hg Concentrations and Biomagnification

315

15.3.5 Organochlorine Compounds and Their Biomagnification

317

15.4 Discussion

318

15.5 Main Conclusions

325

References

327

16 Reasons and Control of Eutrophication in New Reservoirs

333

16.1 Introduction

333

16.2 Reasons of Eutrophication Occurring in New Built Reservoirs

334

16.2.1 Natural Factors and the Hydrodynamic Conditions

335

16.2.2 The Nutrient Concentrations in Reservoirs

336

16.2.3 The Structure of the Ecosystem in Reservoir

337

16.3 Water Quality Variation and Eutrophication in New Reservoirs (Take the Three Gorges Reservoir and Laohutan Reservoir as an Illustration)

338

16.3.1 The Three Gorges Reservoir

338

16.3.1.1 Changes of Hydrodynamic Character After the Water Storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir

338

16.3.1.2 The Change of Water Quality in Three Gorges Reservoir Before and After Impounding

338

16.3.1.3 The Dynamic Variation of the Aquatic Community

339

16.3.2 The Laohutan Reservoir

340

16.3.2.1 Assessment of Inflow Water Quality and Soil Before Water Storage

340

16.3.2.2 Water Quality Variation and Eutrophication Mechanism of Laohutan Reservoir

340

16.3.2.3 Result and Discussion

344

16.3.3 Comparison of the Similar Reservoirs

344

16.3.3.1 Comparison of the New Reservoir with an Old One

344

16.3.3.2 Comparison of Two New Reservoirs

345

16.4 Control Methods of Eutrophication

345

16.4.1 Reducing the Importing Nutrients

345

16.4.1.1 Industrial Pollution Control

345

16.4.1.2 Agricultural Pollution Control

345

16.4.1.3 Domestic Pollution Control

346

16.4.2 Endogenous Nutrients Control

346

16.4.2.1 Biological Measures

346

16.4.2.2 Engineering Measures

346

16.4.3 Construction of a Stable Ecosystem

346

16.4.4 Ecological Scheduling of Reservoir

347

16.4.5 Water Quality Monitoring

347

References

347

17 Plant Nutrient Phytoremediation Using Duckweed

349

17.1 Introduction and Background of Duckweed

349

17.2 Duckweed for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Waters

351

17.2.1 As an Alternative Means of Wastewater Treatment

351

17.2.2 As a Means of Removing Heavy Metals and Other Toxic Elements in Waters

353

17.2.3 As a Means of Removing Toxic Organic Compounds from Wastewater

354

17.3 Duckweeds Other Practical Application

354

17.3.1 As a Source of Livestock Feed

354

17.3.2 As an Inexpensive and Accurate Way of Toxicity Testing

356

17.3.3 Miscellaneous Uses

356

17.4 Summary

357

References

358

18 Nitrogen Removal from Eutrophicated Water by Aquatic Plants

363

18.1 Introduction

363

18.2 Sources of N in Natural Aquatic Ecosystems

364

18.3 N Uptake by Aquatic Plants

365

18.3.1 NO3-- Uptake

365

18.3.2 NH4+ Uptake

365

18.3.3 NHx Toxicity

367

18.3.4 Aquatic Plants Preferences in Taking up NO3-- or NH4+

368

18.3.5 Root Versus Shoot N Uptake

369

18.4 Aquatic Plants and N Removal Efficiency in Eutrophic Aquatic Ecosystems

370

18.4.1 Contribution of Aquatic Plants to N Removal

370

18.4.1.1 Temperature Effect

370

18.4.1.2 Light Effect

373

18.4.1.3 Seasonality

373

18.4.1.4 N Loading

373

18.4.1.5 pH Effect

373

18.4.1.6 Hydraulic and Organic Loading and Retention Time

374

18.4.1.7 Best/Worst Performers Among Plant Species

374

18.4.1.8 Effect of Other Nutrient on Capacity of Aquatic Plants to Remove N

375

18.4.2 Aquatic Plants Improvement of the Eutrophic Aquatic Ecosystems

375

18.5 Conclusions

376

References

376

19 Accelerated Eutrophication in the Mekong River Watershed: Hydropower Development, Climate Change, and Waterborne Disease

381

19.1 Introduction: A Brief History of Dam Building in Southeast Asia

381

19.1.1 The Nexus of Hydropower Development, Climate Change, Accelerated Eutrophication, and waterborne disease

382

19.2 Mekong River Habitat Ecology -- Benchmark Studies of Pre-impoundment Conditions

383

19.2.1 Study Areas

383

19.2.1.1 Threats to Biological Water Quality -- Cyanotoxins and Schistosomiasis

385

19.2.2 Hydropower Projects, Accelerated Eutrophication, Water Quality, and Waterborne Disease Transmission

385

19.2.2.1 General Habitat Dynamics

385

19.3 Using the Benchmark Studies to Predict Accelerated Eutrophication Impacts from Dam Impoundments

391

19.4 Summary

393

References

393

Index

395